« НазадПродовжити »
brought to bear upon the subject (Fig. 467, B). This act should take two to three seconds. Then immediately swing backward so as to remove the pressure, returning to the position swing in Fig. 467, A. Repeat regularly 12 to 15 times per minute the swinging forward and backward, completing a respiration in four or five seconds.
As soon as this artificial respiration has been started and while it is being conducted an assistant should loosen any tight clothing about the subject's chest or waist. Continue the artificial respira
tion without interruption until natural breathing is restored (if necessary two hours or longer) or until a physician arrives. If natural breathing stops after having been restored, use artificial respiration again. Some patients have been revived after several hours of hard work.
As soon as signs of life appear the lower limbs should be ele!vated and rubbed vigorously toward the heart. Hot applications should be used over the heart if practicable. If the patient gains consciousness and is able to swallow give hot coffee or half-teaspoonful doses of aromatic spirits of ammonia and treat as in shock. Do not put any liquid in the patient's mouth until he is fully conscious. Give the patient fresh air, but keep him warm.
Send for the nearest doctor and pulmotor as soon as the accident is discovered.
Automobile Repair Shop Medicine Chest. The following estracts are from an article by Dr. W. R. Ingraham published in the Scientific American. The instructions are so plainly given that they can be followed to advantage by the repairman and machinist, and the various remedies and supplies mentioned may be advantageously included in the shop equipment because the various minor accidents that may happen in the shop may be treated by some shopmate or member of the clerical force trained for this duty, and men kept at work after minor wounds are dressed.
Remedy for Slight Burns. Does the “Handy Man" ever burn himself? Of course. One of the best, most convenient remedies he can use is solution of picric acid in water. It is very satisfying and just a little gratifying to have the excessive pain of first degree burns instantly quieted. First degree burns are superficial, and the nerve endings, not being destroyed as in the deeper second and third degree burns, set up a howling remonstrance in the way of pain. Picric acid of a strength 1 to 200 (about one-third teaspoonful to one pint of water) or a saturated solution is used. It is antiseptic and will prevent suppuration. It is analgesic and “will make it feel good.” It stains yellow, but the stain comes out in the wash. Keep a small vial handy. When you get a burn (if skin is not broken), sprinkle a little acid in a basin of water. Saturate a strip of gauze or cloth with this and bandage in place. In
a very little while (or as soon as the picric acid coagulates the albuminous exudate) the pain is quieted.
For Deep Burns.-Use picric acid as above for deeper burns (blisters and broken skin) but more carefully. Pour a little alcohol in the basin to be used. Roll it about so that the alcohol wets all the inside. Set it on fire and every germ in that pan dies in-. stantly. Pour water that has been boiled from the teakettle into the pan, and add the picric acid. Bandage the burn with clean aseptic gauze and saturate it with solution. Blisters should be opened and contents expressed. Open them with a needle, the business end of which is sterilized by holding in the flame of a match. The soot will do no harm. For still deeper burns or burns of large area (third degree) much can be done by the above to alleviate suffering until a physician can be had, but send for him at once. The attending shock is serious.
For Small Cuts and Abrasions.-If the Handy Man cuts his finger or knocks the skin off his knuckle he should proceed as follows: 1. Cleanse the wound. Hydrogen peroxide is becoming a favorite antiseptic and with good reason. Besides being a germ killer it acts and cleanses mechanically. Its effervescence dislodges and carries away dirt and any foreign matter that might infect the wound. Try it on a splinter of decayed wood at which you have picked and fussed in an endeavor to extract. The hydrogen peroxide “boils” it right out. Therefore cleanse the cut by pouring on from a bottle a little of it, full strength. (A medicine dropper is convenient.) 2. Dust on a little aristol. Aristol is an iodine compound, having the useful antiseptic properties of iodoform, but lacks the disagreeable odor and irritating properties of the latter. With the exudate from the wound it forms a good artificial antiseptic scab. It may be purchased in small sifting top bottles. 3. Apply a protective dressing.
A bit of absorbent cotton pasted down over the wound with collodion forms a stiff protecting shield, which stays in place. It may be washed over with soap and water and will not require renewal for two or three days. For a contused finger nail, or cut near the end of a finger so liable to painful knocks it forms a stiff, comfortable thimble that is soft inside, looks better than a rag and
does not interfere with work. For smaller, more superficial wounds than the above a useful dressing, better than the questionable court plaster, or even adhesive tape, is collodion, to which has been added aristol or iodoform (50 grams to the ounce). A small glass rod, the ends of which have been made smoother by melting with a blowpipe vin an alcohol flame, makes a convenient applicator for the collodion. Pass it through the cork and leave it in the bottle permanently
For Wounds and Painful Injuries.-In case of a deep wound the collodion dressing is not applicable and the soothing properties of a moist dressing are desired. Pour a measured quart of water into the basin to be used. Gauge the quantity with your eye. Throw out the water and sterilize the basin (as above) by pouring a little alcohol into the basin and rolling it about to wet all the inside. Set it on fire with a match and the basin is thoroughly sterilized. Pour a quart of water that has been boiled directly from the teakettle into the basin. One tablet of bichloride of mercury (as usually prepared) makes a 1 to 2000 solution when added to the quart of water. Sterilize another smaller basin by the method described above and pour a part of the solution into it for later use. Cleanse the wound as thoroughly as conditions permit.
Hydrogen peroxide of full strength or diluted with water is usually sufficient. If the wound is very dirty and much lacerated, as machinists' wounds are apt to be, the following method of cleaning is perhaps better:
Add to 1 quart warm water in which the wound is to be washed 2 teaspoonsful lysol. (This makes about 1 per cent. solution.) Lysol has an odor similar to carbolic acid, but is not so poisonous. It forms a soapy solution, hence its value as a cleansing agent. It numbs the parts and makes them less sensitive to pain. The part should now be thoroughly irrigated with the bichloride solution in the larger basin, being sure that all the lysol solution is removed from the wound.
Surgically clean gauze (sterilized, aseptic) is now bandaged over the wound and moistened with the clean bichloride solution saved in the smaller basin for this purpose. Bandage lightly. If the gauze dries and the wound becomes painful inside of 4 hours, remove the outer plain bandage and moisten the gauze with the
solution again. Use weaker bichloride of mercury solution for the next and succeeding dressing (1 to 4000). If too strong, the healing granulations may be retarded.
Home Made Aseptic Gauze.—Plain aseptic gauze (absorbent) may be prepared at home by the following methods: For each five yards of ordinary cheese cloth use one-quarter pound common washing soda to sufficient water to cover the gauze. Boil for one-half hour and rinse in several changes of water to remove the soda. This process removes the fat or oil from the fabric and makes it absorbent. After it has been dried it is cut into suitable sizesstrips one yard long and four inches wide are convenient. The gauze is sterilized and packed ready for use in the following manner: Screw top jars with caps are placed in a large bread pan, and the gauze is arranged loosely in the other end of the pan. Place in the oven and bake until the gauze begins to scorch slightly. Remove the pan and all to a table and while hot pack the strips into the jars. Use a pair of forceps or long tweezers and a short wire for this purpose. The tips of the tweezers and wire should be made sterile by passing through an alcohol flame several times, or they may be sterilized by baking with the jars and gauze. Seal the jars and you have a good supply of aseptic gauze ready for instant use.
When using the gauze it is well to remove the strips with a pair of tweezers, the tips of which have been sterilized in an alcohol flame. This avoids possibility of contaminating the gauze left in the jars. A quick convenient alcohol flame may be had by saturating a small pledget of cotton in the mouth of a bottle.
Moist bichloride gauze, which is expensive to buy, yet invalu. able in case of accident, is made as follows: Prepare and pack the gauze as above. Then prepare a 1 to 1000 solution of bichloride as just explained (burning out the pan with alcohol and using boiled water). Pour this solution over the gauze in the jars until it is thoroughly saturated and allow it to stand for 24 hours. Pour off the excess and seal it air-tight. If dry bichloride gauze is desired prepare the gauze as above, dry it thoroughly in the oven and repack. However, the moist gauze is to be preferred. In using this gauze observe the precaution stated above, i.e., use weaker