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form having tapering flanges on the base by which they are held to the wheel felloe by suitable wedge rings or clamp nuts. Demountable rims are shown at B. These are adapted to receive the standard clincher rings as shown in the upper portion of the illustration or the one piece straight side Dunlop rim as shown in the lower part of the illustration. As will be apparent the rims are held in place by a series of wedges which are forced in the space between the tire carrying rim and that attached to the wheel

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Fig. 420.–Sectional View, Showing Arrangement of Cords that Replace

the Fabric Carcass in the Palmer System Cord Tire Construction.

felloe. A form of tire retaining rim that was formerly very popular is shown at Fig. 422, A. This is known as the Fisk Bolted-On type and could only be used in connection with a tire having a base of the form shown in the illustration. The tire was securely held to the steel rim by means of retaining rings which were clamped firmly in place by bolts carrying specially formed washers designed to clamp over the edge of the retaining ring as well as that of the rim. When it was desired to remove the rings the special tools shown at Fig. 422, B, were needed. The special clamping member was used to squeeze the rings closely together and permit screwing up the retention nuts with the special socket wrench provided for the purpose. When the retaining bolts had been un

screwed all the way around the tire the rings could be withdrawn and the tire easily pulled off of the flat rim. When the tires were installed the clamping member came in handy to squeeze the rings and the portions of the tire base closely enough together so the nuts could be caught on the end of the bolts.

The Goodrich quick detachable rim and the special tool needed for its manipulation are shown at C. The feature is in the shape of

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SHOE 2

WEDGE

REMOVABLE PING

WHEEL
RIM

CLAMP

CLAMP NOT

SERRATED
BOLT

CLAMP NUT

Fig. 421.–Sectional Views, Showing Construction of Quick Detachable

Demountable Rims.

the locking slot in the rim attached to the wheel felloe. The open end locking rim carries tongues which fit into the slot and which may be sprung into place to securely lock the rim. The tool shown is provided to facilitate bringing the end of the locking rings together in order to spring the tongues into the locking grooves. The pins in the ends of the levers fit suitable pin holes in the locking member. When it is desired to remove the ring one of the tongues. is pried out of its locking groove and then pulled away from the rim at all points. After the ring has been partially detached it is.

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Fig. 422.–Vlows Showing Construction of Various Types of Quick Detachablo Rims and Tools for Their

Manipulation.

not difficult to remove the remaining tongue from the wheel felloe rim. When replacing this locking ring, the first step is to catch the tongue on one end of the ring under the wheel felloe rim by inserting it in the notch nearest the edges of the rim. The ring is then forced in place all around and finally locked by bringing the remaining tongue in the groove nearest the center of the wheel and then springing that in place over the projecting portion near the edge of the rim. The method of installing a straight side tire when a rim of the form shown at Fig. 419, 1-A, is used is clearly shown at Fig. 422, D and E. The section at D shows the method of installing the spreader member at the base of the valve properly while the general application of the locking ring may be clearly ascertained at E.

Tools for Tire Repairs. It is necessary in all cars using pneumatic tires to carry a certain amount of equipment for handling and repairing these on the road. A typical outfit is shown at Fig. 423, this supplementing two spare outer casings, and two or more extra inner tubes for replacement purposes. Included in the repair outfit are a blowout sleeve, a number of patches, and an acidcure vulcanizing outfit for applying them. Tire irons are provided to remove the casing from the rim; the jack is used to raise the wheel of the vehicle on which the defective tire is installed from the ground and make it possible to remove the tire completely from the wheel. The air pump is needed to inflate the repaired tube or the new member inserted to take its place. Talcum powder is provided to sprinkle between the casing and the tube to prevent chafing or heating, while the spare valves and valve tool will be found useful in event of damage to that important component of the inner tube. As it is desirable to inflate the tires to a certain definite pressure, a small gauge which will show the amount of compression in the tire is useful.

The outfit shown may be supplemented by other forms of vulcanizing sets and by special tire irons to make for easier removal of the outer casing. Tire irons vary in design, and most makers of tires provide levers for manipulating the casings, which differ to some extent. A set of tire irons such as would be needed with a clincher tire equipment could be selected from the forms shown

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Fig. 423.—Tools and Supplies for Pneumatic Tire Restoration.

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