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tools and small parts off the floor when working away from the bench. The metal table shown at D is very well adapted for the individual workman's use, as it is provided with a drawer in which tools may be locked and also with a substantial metal top and shelf on which work may be done. The table is mounted on wheels and may be easily moved, even when loaded to capacity. Another useful adjunct to the assembling department equipment is shown at E. This is a cast iron bench having a vise attached and mounted on a tripod which offers a substantial foundation. There is a compartment immediately below the bench top for holding tools and a shelf above the floor that may be utilized for the same purpose. The table shown at D when fitted with a rack at the side and back is also well adapted for use in the forge room, as it will hold all of the blacksmith's tools and cannot be set afire by a piece of hot iron as a wooden bench is. The addition of the rack makes it possible to carry the assortment of tongs usually found at the forge.

Three forms of wheeled trucks are shown at F, G and H. That at F is a low framework that may be boarded over and used for conveying heavy parts from one end of the shop to the other or that can be used just as shown for conveying axles, engines and gear boxes which are of irregular form and which could not be conveniently carried by a platform. The truck shown at G is made of pipe fittings and is used for supporting automobile frames when the springs and axles have been removed. As this is provided with wheels it can be easily moved with its burden as desired. The cast iron stand at H was designed especially for handling transmission gear boxes in a service garage where one particular make of car was looked after exclusively. As designed it was only suitable for use with the gear box found in this car. By being slightly modified to the extent of having adjustable brace members joining the two sides it could be used to advantage for a variety of purposes.

The small wheel truck shown at I is known as a “creeper” and serves to keep the workmen off the floor when working underneath a car. This is provided with a head rest at one end and it may be easily moved about without the workman using it getting up from his reclining position. These trucks are

sometimes provided with a shelf at one side to support tools and to insure that these will move whenever the operator does. The various pieces of furniture outlined will be susceptible to various changes that will adapt them to the specific work in hand, and a repair shop of any pretentions will be able to use all of the furniture shown to good advantage.

Construction and Size of Pits. The back shop shown at Fig, 3, A, has two pits, and the arrangement of the work benches can be seen. At the end of the short bench placed against the boiler room wall is a pipe vise, while at regular intervals along the benches are placed strong swivel vises. This bench is 30 inches deep, about 36 inehes high, of rough construction, and built very heavy to stand abuse. The pits are four and one-half feet deep, three and one-half feet wide and 11 feet long. They are lined with heavy planking, and stairs permit the workmen to descend and ascend without effort. Along the side walls of the pits and about two and one-half feet above the bottom, two pieces of two by four scantling are fastened, these to support a board that may be moved from one end of the pit to the other, as a seat for a workman.

With more general use of the motor truck it will be well to install a larger and shallower pit, as the mechanisms of these vehicles are carried higher than in the conventional touring car. Such a pit should be about three and one-half feet deep, four feet wide and 14 feet long. The edges of all pits should be sharply defined by a surrounding frame of two by four scantling, this being a guard to prevent the wheels rolling into the pit while maneuvering a car about it.

The view at Fig. 8 shows the depth of the pit with an operator standing upright and also depicts clearly the frame work around the pit to guide the car wheels. The amount of space allowed between the edge of the pit and the workbench is also depicted. In some shops it is customary to have a pit cover made in sections so that when only one end of a car is to be worked on but a portion of the pit is used, the remainder being covered by one section of boarding to prevent the workmen at the bench from falling into the pit. In some shops the electric wiring is run to the pit interior and ends in a plug socket so that a drop light or extension cord may be connected without the necessity of having a long length of wire

trailing over the floor as is necessary when the connection is made to one of the lamp sockets over the bench.

Turn Tables, Lifting and Moving Appliances.—In many repair shops where the floor area is limited or where the floor space is broken up by a number of posts it is often difficult to move cars about even under their own power and it takes considerable maneuvering to head the car around in the other direction. The ideal solution of this problem is the turntable in its various forms. The simplest and cheapest is in the form of a small wheel truck as shown at Fig. 13, having the wheels mounted on a swivel carriage so they


Fig. 13.—Method of Utilizing Simple Substitute for Turntable.

can run in any direction. To use this useful accessory the first step is to jack up the car as shown at A, and then run the truck under the wheels letting the wheels down when the truck is in place. The car may be run onto the trucks under its own power at one end while it is necessary to raise the other two wheels in order to use the small truck. When four of these are used, one under each wheel, it will be possible to swing the heaviest car around without much exertion.

An objection offered to the large turntable is that a pit is necessary in order to have these flush with the floor level, and most of the structures offered are costly. A very simple arrangement that will work very well without requiring alterations to the floor is

shown at Fig. 14. This rests directly on the floor and consists of a eircular iron track having a number of ribs or spokes radiating to a central hub which serves as a pivotal point for the load carrying carriage. The carriage is made up of two channel iron beams fastened together by a spacer casting, having at its center a suitable bearing to engage the pivot pin. This serves merely to locate the load carriage and is not called upon to support any of the weight, which is carried by a series of wheels resting on the track and securely attached to the side flanges of the channel section beams. As the height of the beams from the floor is but two inches, it is


Fig. 14.–Outlining Construction of Pitless Turntable.

possible to use a pair of wedge shape planks as an approach to the turntable. The side of the channel irons also serves a useful purpose besides offering a means of securing the supporting wheels and spacer frame, inasmuch as they offer a guide so the wheels of the car cannot run out of their correct path. These turntables may be secured in sizes, capable of handling any weight of car and will be found an effective substitute for the more expensive built-in turntable.

Two forms of built-in turntable are shown at Fig. 15. It will be observed that with these it is necessary to make a pit in which a portion of the mechanism is concealed. The form shown at A is built up of angle irons and steel plates and the load is carried at

[blocks in formation]


Ball Thrust Bearing


Concrete Base

2.21 6x6ʻkyanızad Spruce


Fig. 15.—Designs of Turntable Suitable for Garage Use.

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