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B which keeps the upper and lower parts of the base in a fixed position.

Another form of bench vise that is of value when fitting small pieces is known as a die sinker's vise because of its almost universai use by mechanics of this class. This is carried by a base piece hav

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Fig. 10.—Some Indispensable Items of Bench Equipment.

ing a large ball formed at the lower end held firmly between a pair of jaws that may be tightly clamped by a hand-locking lever. As will be apparent the use of a ball and socket joint to hold the vise enables the operator to set his work in any one of a large number of positions. By releasing the clamp lever the ball is free in its socket and the vise may be set at any desired angle.

The Columbian pattern is the old stand-by of blacksmiths and

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Fig. 11.-Types of Vises Adapted for Use in the Automobile Repair Shop.

wheelwrights, and as it is a form that is subjected to hard usage, the retaining clamp which is bolted to the bench in the customary manner is re-enforced by a heavy ball end supporting foot which rests on the floor. This form of vise is carried out further from the bench than the other types shown, because a blacksmith must handle long pieces of iron or steel and bend them at various angles.

The use of the pillar for supporting the vise structure is made necessary because the work is often subjected to heavy blows in the various smithing operations. The Columbian is usually included as forge equipment and is used at the blacksmith's bench.

The Oswego and Saunders are forms of vises used only for holding pipes and rods. These employ toothed jaws which may be adjusted in the frame to accommodate various sizes of pipe. The Oswego vise frame is made in such a way that a long piece of pipe may be held by opening up the frame and slipping the pipe in place between the jaws through the opening provided. In the Saunders vise it is necessary to put the pipe in end first which may be inconvenient when long lengths of pipe having fittings on it is to be handled. Of those shown, three forms should be included in the equipment of every repair shop, these being the types represented by the Prentice, Columbian and Oswego.

Another item of bench equipment of value is the straight edge shown at Fig. 10, B. This is a very useful tool in the automobile repair shop, as it is widely used in testing alinement of the various units, straightness of frame members or tubes and for all purposes where comparison must be made with a perfectly true smooth and straight line. The form shown is made of cast iron of arch construction and with a perforated web in order to obtain maximum strength without too much weight. Another item of shop equipment is the surface plate which is shown at Fig. 10, C. These are made of cast iron, well ribbed at the back for rigidity and with the top surface planed accurately. A surface plate is used somewhat as a straight edge is and is a form of gauge very useful in determining flatness of surfaces. The bench equipment also should include a variety of metal hand clamps, two forms of which are shown at Fig. 10. The two screw type having parallel

jaws is shown at D, while a C clamp is outlined at E. Clamps are very useful in holding parts together temporarily that are to be fastened by some permanent means. They are useful adjuncts to the bench vise and have the added advantage that they can be moved when pieces are to be held against members that it would be difficult to hold in the vise. For example, in fastening various irons and braces to an automobile frame, the clamps are invaluable as a temporary means of keeping the members together while drilling for the permanent bolts is going on. Many of the repair operations to be described call for the use of clamps as shown.

Assembling Room Furniture. There are a number of articles of equipment or furniture that are very useful on the assembling floor. That shown at Fig. 12, A, is a bench constructed of heavy timbers of such a form that it is well adapted to support automobile engines when these are removed from the car frame. A bench of this construction is also of value for supporting the various crank case components when work is being done on them that requires that they should be held level and securely. In the illustration a portion of a crank case is shown in such a position that work may be done upon the bearings. The simple supporting fixture shown at B is exceptionally useful for holding automobile rear axles. It is of approximately T form, being composed of two pieces of planks and three uprights well braced with iron bars and mounted on casters so the load may be moved with but little effort. The form of bench used and its actual construction will, of course, depend upon the type of axle that is to be supported. The member shown is intended for torque tube axles.

Another very useful piece of furniture is a trestle or horse such as shown at C which forms a good means of support for some of the parts when these are removed from the car chassis. A pair of these trestles should be included in the garage equipment as they can be used together to support a front or rear axle, engine, automobile frame and other bulky objects. The form outlined is a folding steel construction which occupies but little space when knocked down. It is strong, light, and fire-proof, all very good features in garage equipment. The workman engaged in floor work is often handicapped by not having some means of keeping

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Fig. 12.-Miscellaneous Items of Shop Furniture for Use on the Assembling Floor.

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