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though it may be lower than this if the men are engaged in active labor. In the machine shop where men must stand quiet much of the time, the temperature should be higher than in the erecting room, where they are constantly moving around and handling parts, this tending to keep the blood in circulation. It is a mistaken idea on the part of some shop managers that the men must be half frozen so they will exert themselves more than if conditions were more favorable to comfort.
This is true if the temperature is much too high, but there is little danger of this happening in a large shop having considerable metal to absorb heat, and where the doors are opened to admit cars many times each day. A man cannot work with any degree of accuracy if his fingers are numb. When shops are cold, the operatives compensate for this by wearing heavier extra clothing that hampers their movements appreciably. What is gained in fuel is lost in labor, to say nothing of the effect unfavorable conditions have on the dispositions of the workers.
Of the methods of heating in vogue, the writer unhesitatingly recommends steam or hot water, in connection with judiciously placed radiators and pipes. The amount of radiator surface needed should be computed very accurately, and can only be determined by taking into account the character of the walls, number of windows, cubical contents of the rooms to be heated, the facilities for ventilation, the number and size of doorways and many other conditions best considered by a competent heating and ventilating engineer. The steam or hot water boiler has the advantage of furnishing warm water at all times for washing purposes, and as the radiators may be shut off if too warm, the temperature can be regulated to suit requirements and to secure economical and efficient heating from the fuel burned.
The problem of ventilation is one that is of importance, though its character depends upon the type and construction of the buildings used. Repair shops are usually of large size, and have large space in proportion to the number of workmen employed. In many cases of ground floor shops, this ratio is so large that no special provision need be made, the air being changed often enough to answer all practical needs, as the main entrance is opened and closed. With a number of upper floors, conditions are different and in such cases every endeavor should be made to renew at least one-tenth of the total contents every hour. In paint shops, smith, and testing or adjusting rooms where noxious fumes may be present, and in small rooms where the number of workmen is greatly in excess of the air space available, no less than half the contents should be renewed hourly. The suggestions for building, heating, lighting and ventilation apply to all shops.
Building Arrangement. As an example of the amount of space allowed in a building devoted to both a garage and repair business
the floor plans of a garage located in a city of forty thousand inhabitants is presented at Fig. 1. This building has a frontage of 74 feet and is 150 feet deep. The front faces a main street and is occupied by a sales room 30 feet square in one corner, and a main office of the same size in the other corner. The sales room has an attractive show window across the entire front, and the other departments are also liberally provided with windows.
with windows. One side of the plant faces an alley extending the entire distance, and there is also an alley to the rear. This offers the important advantage of providing a situation on what is practically three well paved streets. The alley to the north is practically exclusive and affords the company a chance to store many cars during the day and at the same time leaves plenty of room for the vehicles to move
around. The plant has five entrances, the main entrance at the front, which is 14 feet wide, two to the repair department, one at the rear to the main garage and one in the room set apart for the demonstrating car. All entrances measure 14 feet across and are amply high to permit the entrance of the largest motor truck. The building is of brick and concrete construction and is two stories
Fig. 2.-Floor Plan of Small Repair Shop, Showing Location of Pit and
in height at the front. The second floor front is occupied by the tire repair department and the stock room. Skylights over the repair department and the garage proper furnish plenty of light from above.
The floor space on the main floor, back of the office and sales room is therefore divided into three sections. The repair department is 30 feet wide by 120 feet long and is situated to the rear of the office. The garage proper is to the rear of the show room
and is 44 feet wide and 120 feet long. The repair department is sufficiently large to employ 18 men. The building is heated by steam which is furnished by a heating plant in the basement underneath the main office.
The floor plan at Fig. 2 is that of a small building devoted exclusively to repair work and is suitable as a design for a shop to be placed at the side or rear of a garage. This building not only offers ample room to work on seven large cars but also provides for a complete machine tool equipment and ample space for office and stock room furniture. There is but one entrance, that being located at the front of the plant. The dimensions of the building and the arrangement of the various departments are so clearly shown that further comment is unnecessary. Floor plans are also given at Figs. 3 and 4 for a medium size service station, while a large departmentized repair shop is shown at Fig. 5. medium size repair shop having a commendable arrangement of machinery and still leaving ample space for working on a good number of cars is shown at Fig. 6. In many large cities it is necessary to use buildings having more than one story on account of the value of land in business or manufacturing sections
A typical arrangement of a converted factory building that has worked out fairly well for a service station is shown at Fig. 5. This is operated exclusively as a repair shop and has complete facilities. The building is of brick and while not as well adapted for motor car repairing as the specially planned structure at Fig. 6 is, it has been remodelled to good advantage. The building is 165 feet long and 36 feet wide inside the walls. Considering that the building is an old one built before the days when the provision of ample light was considered one of the essentials, it is fairly well lighted during the day as the walls are pierced with many small windows. At night a large number of Tungsten lamp groups of high candle power furnish the general illumination. Both floors are divided into three rooms, the largest 104 feet long being used as an assembling and storage room on both floors. On the lower floor there is an intermediate room 28 feet long into which the elevator leads that is also used for assembling and overhauling purposes. The remaining small room on the ground floor which is 25 feet