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provided with internal hexagon or square sockets. The wrench shown at M consists of a forged handle having a piece of bar stock of the proper section securely welded to it. The length of the handle provides considerable leverage, makes it possible to remove the valve caps even if these are rusted in place. The short pieces of bar stock shown at M are used for the same purpose, but are intended to be turned by a large monkey wrench or by inserting a lever or pinch bar in the holes provided for the purpose at the top of the bar.

Wheel and Gear Pullers.— When wheels or gears have seized on their axles, due either to want of lubrication or to grit, rust, etc., special forms of pullers are needed to remove them without injury. The form shown at Fig. 86, A, is intended to be used on gears that have threaded holes in the web to receive the screws on the end of the cross bar. When these screws are properly entered, pressure on the central screw will draw off the gear from the shaft. The form shown at B, is intended to be passed around the gear or pulley to be removed, as it has arms with hooked ends to obtain a purchase on the rim of the gear. The central screw is turned by a crank, but in other respects its action is similar to that shown at A. A simple form of wheel puller that may be made by any repairman is shown at Fig. 86, C. The crossbar is forged from a piece of scrap steel and provided with a series of holes equally spaced each side of the boss. This is drilled and tapped to receive a standard 1.125 inch screw pointed at its lower end to fit into the center hole left in the end of all axles or shafts that are finished by turning. The arms are forgings and can be moved back and forth as desired on the puller beam. The upper end of the puller arms are provided with yokes of sufficient size to permit the beam to drop in and are held in place by a through pin which can be easily removed to permit the arm to be changed from one hole to another according to the size of the object to be removed.

The large wheel puller shown at F, is practically the same in construction as that shown at C, except that it is more powerful and has three arms instead of two: The advantage gained by this construction is that the pressure is exerted at three equidistant points and it is not possible for the puller to spring sideways when

the pressure is applied to the screw as sometimes occurs with the two-armed form. The beam is a heavy steel forging, the arms of which are drilled with a number of holes so the hook members can be moved to accommodate various sizes of work, . For removing wheels from live axle shafts, as is necessary on all nonfloating rear axles, the devices shown at D and E are useful. These are practically heavier duplicates of hub caps provided with a pressure screw in the center forced in against the axle after the device is screwed on the wheel hub. The body castings may be of steel or bronze and even malleable or cast iron may be employed. The puller shown at E, has a minor advantage in that threads may be brought closer to the wheel hub by screwing the clamping bolt which tightens the body portion around the thread should that member be a trifle undersized.

The wheel puller shown at G, Fig. 86, is a new pattern capable of handling a wide range of work. The arms are heat-treated steel drop forgings and can be quickly adjusted to handle work as wide as thirteen inches. For small pieces such as pinions, cams, etc., of 27/2 inches diameter or less, extension arms are provided to enable one to exert pressure for the removal of the small piece. The center screw passes through a threaded block into which the bolts holding the arms in place screw. As each arm is provided with nine holes and as they are capable of swinging on the fulcrum-end it will be evident that a large variety of work can be handled with one wheel puller.

Typical Special Tool Equipment.—The makers of all the popular cars, especially those that are produced in any quantity, furnish special tools for the use of their repairmen or for those employed in the service stations of the agents. As an example of the special tools that it is possible to obtain, the assortment used by repairmen of Ford Model T cars is shown at Fig. 87. The device at A is a wheel puller designed to go on the hub in place of the hub cap. In operation it is the same as the form shown at Fig. 86, D and E. The tools shown at Fig. 87, B, C, D, F, G, and D-2, form part of the regular tool equipment. The box wrench at E is also furnished with each car and is a hub cap wrench having one end formed to fit the slabbed portion of the front wheel bearing

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Fig. 87.-Special Tools of Value in Repairing Ford Automobiles.

adjusting cone lock nut. A valve spring lifter is shown at H, while a valve seat reamer is shown at I. The valves are turned while grinding by the special brace S, which can be used on all of the valves except the one on the rear cylinder, which is immediately under the dash board. To turn this valve the special wrench shown at L, is provided. A special T-handle socket wrench for handling 36-inch nuts or bolt heads such as used on the rear construction and various other points is shown at J. A T-handle screw-driver, for the set screws which are employed in retaining the camshaft bearings, is shown at 0. The puller shown at E is for removing the cam gear from the camshaft, while that at Q is a transmission clutch puller. The brace shown at R, is a special socket wrench for 38-inch bolt nuts. The brace shown at T, is employed for removing the magnet-retaining screws in the magneto assembly. The tire irons at A-2, the tool roll at B, the pump at D-1, and the spark plug socket wrench at D-2 are all parts of the regular tool equipment furnished with each car.

The simple fitting shown at W, is a piston ring compressor employed to compress the rings in the piston grooves to facilitate easy assembly in the cylinder block. A number of special socket wrenches are shown at X, Y, Z; A-1, C-1, C-2 and C-3. These are all intended for use on the various fastenings used in holding the parts together. For example, that at X is a socket wrench for the crankshaft main bearing bolt nuts. That at Y is for 38-inch bolt heads or nuts. The wrench at Z is for removing the cylinder head retaining bolts. The wrench for removing the pinion drive shaft housing retaining stud nuts is shown at C-1, this being used for 38-inch nuts. The rear axle housing bolt nut wrench is shown at C-2, while the form outlined at C-3 is similar to that shown at C-1 except that it fits 11/32-inch nuts. The special end wrench at M, is for the flywheel retention cap screws, that at U, is for removing the large cam gear lock nut while that at B-1 is a regular open end wrench for 38-inch nuts. The prices on these tools are so low that it is cheaper to purchase from the factory than to attempt to make them.

Tools and Supplies Itemized.—The following lists are presented is a guide for the novice repairman or motorist who wishes to make

his own repairs and enumerate the most important of the tools necessary in automobile repairing and the supplies most generally used in restoring defective mechanism. It is not possible to enumerate all tools that can be used to advantage as their number is legion. However, selections of those needed can be made from the lists for the regular tool equipment and can be augmented as conditions dictate. The wider the range of work the shop is to attempt, the more complete the tool and supply stock must be.

TOOLS FOR THE REPAIR SHOP.

HAMMERS:

Blacksmith's hammer-412 lb, head.
Blacksmith's sledge-10 lb, head, short handle.
Blacksmith's sledge—20 lb. head, long handle.
Machinist's ball pein hammers—1 lb, head, 2 lb. head.
Machinist's ball pein hammers—12 lb, head.
Machinist's straight pein hammers—4 oz, head.
Wooden or Rawhide Mallet.
Lead or Babbitt hammer.

WRENCHES:

Ratchet Handle Socket Wrench Set.
Six-inch Stillson wrench.
Twelve-inch Stillson wrench.
Eighteen-inch Stillson wrench.
Six-inch Coes or other monkey wrench.
Twelve-inch Coes or other monkey wrench.
Eighteen-inch Coes or other monkey wrench.
Set of double end S wrenches.
Assorted Spanner wrenches.
Bicycle wrench, small 4 inches.
Narrow jaw monkey wrench, 8 inches.
Bemis and Call Adjustable end wrench, 6 inches.
Bemis and Call Adjustable end wrench, 8 inches.
Spark plug socket wrench.
Small hand vise.

PLIERS, ETC.:

Combination pliers, 6 inches, 10 inches.
Side cutting, parallel jaw pliers.

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