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ability acting action actual afford amount attempt become capacity capital capitalist combination compete competition competitors consists constitutes continue cost created demand depends determine direction distribution economic effective efficiency effort element employer equal essential establishment existence extent fact fall field forces function gain give governing groups higher important increasing individual industrial influence interest invention kind labor land less limit lines maintained manufacturing materials means methods Mill moral natural natural rate needs normal operations organization permanent political economy pools possible practical present principle production Professor Cairnes profit Pure profit question rate of wages reduced regulating relations restrict result returns rewards salary social society steel supply tends term theory tion trade true uniform union utilities wealth whole workmen
Сторінка 18 - This is partly intelligible, if we consider that only through the principle of competition has political economy any pretension to the character of a science.
Сторінка 56 - It is not to be understood that the natural price of labour, estimated even in food and necessaries, is absolutely fixed and constant. It varies at different times in the same country, and very materially differs in different countries.
Сторінка 5 - No doubt the various ranks and classes fade into each other by imperceptible gradations, and individuals from all classes are constantly passing up or dropping down; but while this is so, it is nevertheless true that the average workman, from whatever rank he be taken, finds his power of competition limited for practical purposes to a certain range of occupations, so that, however high the rate of remuneration in those which lie beyond may rise, he is excluded from sharing them.
Сторінка 11 - Combinations have their roots in the nature of social industry and are normal in their origin, their development and their practical working. They are neither to be deprecated by scientists nor suppressed by legislators. They are the result of an evolution, and are the happy outcome of a competition so abnormal that the continuance of it would have meant widespread ruin.
Сторінка 6 - ... down; but while this is so, it is nevertheless true that the average workman, from whatever rank he be taken, finds his power of competition limited for practical purposes to a certain range of occupations, so that, however high the rates of remuneration in those which lie beyond may rise, he is excluded from sharing them. We are thus compelled to recognize the existence of non-competing industrial groups as a feature of our social economy; and this is the fact which I desire here to insist upon.
Сторінка i - The Modern Distributive Process. Studies of Competition and its Limits, of the Nature and Amount of Profits, and of the Determination of Wages in the Industrial Society of to-day.
Сторінка 5 - Secondly, there would be the artisan group, comprising skilled laborers of the secondary order — carpenters, joiners, smiths, masons, shoe-makers, tailors, hatters, etc., etc., with whom might be included the very large class of small retail dealers, whose means and position place them within the reach of the same industrial opportunities as the class of artisans. The third layer would contain producers and dealers of a higher order, whose work would demand qualifications only obtainable by persons...
Сторінка 40 - ... receives two distinct rewards. In his first capacity, he is a directive laborer, whose compensation is in the nature of wages; in his second capacity, he is a buyer and seller, who owns the product and who makes a profit by selling it.1 In this capacity he apparently does little to earn the profit. The reward of the entrepreneur in his capacity as owner of a product comes to him as rain from the clouds, through the action of forces lying beyond the range of his dominant influence. He has nothing...
Сторінка 56 - But though, in disputes with their workmen, masters must generally have the advantage, there is, however, a certain rate, below which it seems impossible to reduce, for any considerable time, the ordinary wages even of the lowest species of labour.