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I jng Classes in 1816 and 1817;sion, which rendered it imperative on

bim to proreed, nntwithstanding the and the suffering. is now teaching absence of the Noble the farmers and landlords. the farmers and landlords.

It
It the more regretted this, because when

the subject was laid before the House, was urged against your bill, that the Noble Marq'ess had earnestly en

treated him to wait until the termithe Farmers did not petition nation of the inquiry by the Committee against taxes. Oh, no! And

noi And on Agricultural Distress, pledging tim

self to support the proposition, should

Agricu for reasons fully explained in my the result of that inquiry be to recom

mend it. With that request he (Mr. letter to Mr. ATTWOOD, and in Curwen) had complied." The Right that to Mr. Haves! The far

Honourable Chancellor of the Ex

chequer had also said, that any such mers vainly hoped, poor Bull- recommendation on the part of the

Agricultural Committee would be a frogs, that the parliament could

strong inducement with him to comply give them high-prices. But, they

with the proposition. The object

which he had in view was 'one most will now petition against taxes, I material to the interests of Agricul

ture. The Tax had always been unhope! And, the man is a mere ljust in principle, and oppressive in ideot, who does not see, that practice. But the question now wore

a very different aspect from that which every tax taken off, be it what it it assumed when he had formerly

J.brought it under the consideration of may, finally benefits the whole of the Hou the coinmunity. There are, how-to be his duty to propose some sub

stitute to supply the deficiency which ever, taxes that press more immé- the Repeal of the Tax in question was

calculated to occasion in the Reyenue. diately on husbandry, and that But things were now in a different : have the effect too, of checking how the font ton of checking state. The Right Hon. Gentleman

had since had abundant opportunities produce, and such are those terri- of obviating the evil. Not only must

the Right Hon. Gentleman have been ble taxes, the malt and the salt- well aware of the extent of the extax. But, 6 one thing at one listing agricultural distress, but he

must have well known what had passed " time.” You must get on by in the Comınittee appointed to inves

tigate the causes of that agricultural degrees.

distress which every one acknowledged I am, Sir,

to be unprecedented in extent. The

result of the inquiries of that ComYour must humble - mittee had been, that although there

existed a variety of opinions in it on And most obedient Servant, : Jother parts of the subject, on that o ' WM., COBBETT. the agricultural distress, and of the

necessity of affording speedy relief to that distress, the Committee came

to an unanimous resolution that the AGRICULTURAL HORSE Tax. distress of the country was fully

I proved. With such a resolution House of Commons, 11 June, 182). (whatever difference of opinjon might

exist on other subjects), what would Mr. Curwen said, that in rising to be the impression of the country if call the attention of the House to the it should turn out that Parliament important subject of which he had throughout the whole Session had abgiven notice, he extremely regretted stained from taking a single earthly the lateness of the period in the Ses-step to afford the relief acknowledged

to be indispensible [hear !] ? To the work which they must afterwards vote of that night, therefore, the coun- carry to a much greater length (hear). try would look, that they might esti- It was most unjust to call on the Agrimate. what they might expect from culturists alone to make sacrifices; Parliament; for, it was evident, that let them be made equally by all classes if the Report of the Committee were of the community. Was it possible to be made in the present session, it that nearly one half of the whole inwas too late to found any measure come of the country could continue to upon it. He put it, therefore, to the be collected in taxation ? . In his house, what answer they would make opinion, it was' utterly impossible. to his constituents, if they were asked Unless some permanent protection why they did not adopt the proposition could be granted to the Agriculturist, which he was about to submit to them ? the only alternative was to cut dorin Would it be becoming in them to say, the expences of our establishment at that because they found they could not liome and abroad from the King to give all, they therefore refused to give the lowest officer in the State (hear, any thing ? He must again express hear!) But had any disposition been his regret that the Noble llarguess evinced thus to relieve the burdens of was not present, because he felt it his the people? None whatever. It had duty to say that, in his opinion, the been stated by some Honourable Genpresent administration did not show tlemen, that the Tax under consithe feeling which they ought for agri. I deration was a very trifling one ; culture. At the opening of the pre-l on the light soil it was not much, but sent Session, there was not a word in on the heavy soils it amounted to three the Speech from the Throne on the per cent. on the rent. It was a Tax subject of the distress of agriculture. the principle of which was most unjust, His Majesty's Ministers appeared, being a Tax on the Plough, and fell therefore, either to be ignorant of the most heavily on those who were the extent of that distress, or indifferent least able to bear it; the Tax not to it. It was with him a matter of no only bore hard, but exposed the doubt, that there never could be any farmer to endless vexations; for, condescription of prosperity in this countrary to the law of the land, the Tax try, while agriculture remained in a Office pronounced every man guilty distressed state. The Right Hon. the till he was proved innocent, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer had, number of surcharges was in conseduring the last two months, been re- quence enormous, having been no peatedly intreated to reconsider his rewer than 139,000 in the year. Il a estimates. He (Mr. Curwen) was farmer once crossed a horse, he was. persuaded that if the Session were charged with a pleasure horse, and now to recommence, the majority his ploughman was charged as a would declare that these estimates groom. These were vexations which ought, to be reduced. Government ought to be corrected. To shew how ought not to have trusted to any Com- vexatiously the assessed taxes were mittees ; but, taking a view of the leyied, he instanced the case of a poor state of the country, have made those woman in the neighbourhood of Berretrenchments which would have wick, who having paid sixpence to a enabled the House to sacrifice man to prune a favourite fruit tree, was to the agriculturists this boon. surcharged with an oocasional garTrilling as it was, it would be re dener, and her goods were actually ceived with gratitude, and would have sold to pay the tax (hear, hear !). a most advantagcous effect. In the Some persons thought it necessary course of the discussions in the Com-| the inferior grounds should go out of mittee, a Resolution was agreed to, to cultivation ; that he expressly denied. instruct the Chairman to roove for the Every acre in the country ought to be repeal of this tax; though, subse. brought into cullivation ; for what quently, it was decided not to do so was the evil which the country at preuntil the Report was made. This sent endured above any other but circumstance had occasioned the delay want of employment? And was that in his motion. He confidently an ici- eyil to be aggravated instead of dipated that the present decision of the minished? If there were an increase House would be now to begin that of employment, an increased price of

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the necessaries of life would be of|tlemen who had been hitherto the unlittle moment. Cheap bread without divided suppoi ters of Misisters. He prork would at length, he was con- relt particularly gratified by what had vinced, be found to be a great evil, as fallen from the Honourable Chairman destructive of our manufactures as of of the Agricultural Committre (Mr. our agriculture. The repeal if the Gocchi) upon the motion of his Hon, Malt Tax (although he voted for it) Friend (Mr. Curwen) the Member for would not have afforded so great a Carlisle. 'He (Mr.'Coke) was an old relief to the jarmer as the repeal of Merber of Parliament, and he could the Agricultural Horse Tax. The vouch for the unusual exertion and incountry had a right to demand some dustry of his Honourable Friend. sacrifices to relieve it. This was the (Hear, hear.) The Chairman of the only remaining opportunity to eff ct Agricultural Committee (Mr. Gooch) such an object, and he called upon the had stated, that the Agriculturalists House, therefore, to concur in his were in the greatest state of distress, proposition, which was for leave to and that the present tax ought to be bring in a Bill to repeal so much of remoyed; and yet he was one of those the 43rd and 52nd of Geo. III. as re- who had uniformly supported Ministers lated to the Duty' on Horses empljyed in every 1 easure which was proposed in Agriculture.

to barden the country. (Hear, hear.) - Mr. Gooch seconded the motion. He (Mr. ( oke) had uniformly opposed He confirmed the statement of the hon. Ministers, not from a desire of opposigentleman as to the Resolution which tion, but from a convic'ion that their the Committee had a lopted, to instruct measures, if pursued, would bring ruin the Chairman to moye for the repeal of and destruction on the coui try. He this Tax, ali hough they had eventually would agree with the Honourable relinquished the proposition. If ever Me ber (Mr. Gooch) in supporting there was an unjust and oppressive this motien, not because he felt tiat it tax, it was the present. He most would afford any effectual relief, but strongly recommended the repeal. It because he was anxious to lay hold of was a coarse but true saying, that all he could to reduce the burdens of 6. You could not have more of a cat the people. (Hear, hear.) He hoped " than its skin;" and the agricultu- that those Gintlemen who complained rists were, in fact, unable to pay the of public distresses would exert themtax. (Hear, hear.) If we could not selves in opposing the lavish expendiincrease our means, we must diminish ture by which those distresses were our expenditure. (Hear, hear.) Much produced. as he differet'in polit cs from the Hon. Mr. Gipps thought the House must Member for Aberdeen, he must s y see the necessity of supporting the that he thought that Hon. Member haumet on. The Hon. Member was prodone great service to the c. untry.cceding to state at some length the ef(Loud and reiterated cries of hear, fects produced upon the agricultural hear, hear.) He did not say this for interests of the country by the Corn the purpose of catching popularity, | Laws, when or to hurt the feelings of his Honour-! Mr. M. A. BARING fose to 'order. able and Right Honourable Friends He put it to the Hon. Member whether near him ; but because he could not the question of the Corn Laws was at meet his Constituents without per- all mixed up with ihe subject then unforming the duty which he oned to der discussion? them in making this declaration. The Speaker said, that it was for (Hear.)

The Hon. Member (Mr. Gipps) to conMr. DAVENPORT said he felt himself sider how far he could bring the argubound to support the motion. The tax ments upon which he was then enterupon Agricultural Horses pressed mosting to bear upon the question under severely upon the farmer. Taxing discussion. such horses was, in fact, táxing indus- Mr. Gipps bowed to the opinions of try, as without horses neither the the Chair. He concluded by observing plough or harrow could be worked. that he would support the motion from

Mr. Coke (of Norfolk) said, it was a conviction that, however small, it to him delightful to hear the language would be received as a boon by the used upon this occasion by those Gen- landed interest of the country,

Mr. BARING "commenced by apolo-a few words upon what had fallen from gizing to the Honourable Member who Honourable Members on the other had just sat down, for having inter- side, besought the House to grant rupted him. He would, in his obser- this small boon to the agriculturalists, vations on this subject, confine himselt as it would shew that Parliament was strictly to what had fallen from the not totally inåttentive to their situaHonourable Gentleman opposite. He tion. He would give his inost stren(Mr. Baring) was one of those who uous suport to the motion. had used their best endeavours to en- - Mr. W. BURRELL supported the force retrenchment and economy upon motion, not from a feeling that it would Ministers during the late grants, but afford relief, but because he felt that unfortunately without effect. Those ir was an unjust tax upon the agriculextravagant grants having however turist, and because it was a tax which been carried, he could not agree to operated more severely upon the weaken the revenue by repealing the holders of bad than of good ground, tax, in question. And he could not He would, for instance, take Romney help expressing his surprise that gen- Marsh, with which he was well ac. tlemen should pretend to return to their quainted. There the wole land was constituents with a good grace after in pasture, and of course no agriculhaving supported the whole of the tural horses were used. It would be present burthens on the country, as just to tax the cows and sheep which merely because they advocated the re-ted upon that land, as to tax the peal of this solitary tax. Gntlemen horses by which other lan s were on the opposite side might differ with worked. It was said by the Honourhim upon certain points, but upon noble Member for Norfolk (Mr. Coke), one of all the numerous divisions that Gentlemen on his (Mr. Burrell's) which had taken place upon the reduc- side of the House usually supported tions proposed by the Honourable Ministers [hear, hear!) He for one Member for Aberdeen, were the names had supported Ministers during the of the Honourable Member ( Mr. war, for the purpose of obtaining ! Gooch), or the other gentleme' who an honourable and lasting peace, and opposed this tax, 'to be found (hear, with a view to the repeal of many of hear!). Yet the whole of those gen- our taxes (hear, hear ?). But what tlemen had concluded their speeches was the consequence? We had now by advocating retrenchment, notwith- al' but the Property Tax, and trat he standing their having supported every supposed we should soon have too grant, honever extravagant, propo- [hear, hear !). These Ministers came sed by Ministers. The first duty of Town with the same expenditure, and the House was to look to the xpendi- without any view to economy (cheers ture of the country, and that being from the Opposition Benches). It was voted they were bound to provide for true that there liad been a reduction of it. The Honourable Member next 10,000 men, raised at a time when he animadverted upon the injustice i public peace was disturbed, but these those arguments, which tended to pointmen ought to have been restored to out the necessity of seizing 'upon the their homes at the moment that transecurity of the public creditor, in quillity was restored [hear, hear !] order to relieve the distresses of the He thought that the taxes imposed on country. The money lent to Govern- landed property operated to the ruin ment was advanced during a period of the country. Now, the tax-gaof exigency, and though we were now therer helped himself first. If the (in a state of peace, he would ask what landlord did not receive his rent, he would be the situation of the country did not distrain, because it would have in the event of any fluctuation in the the effect of throwing the land upon affairs of Europe, or in the event ojo his own hands ; but the tax-gatherer a war with America ? To either case had no such feeling. He called upon we must have recourse to public cre- the landed interest to support this modit; but how could that application be tion. It was impossible that the counmade with effect, if no reliance could try could be relieved unless the army be placed upon the securities already was cut down, and unless economy

was introduced into every branch of Mr. BENETT (of Wiltshire), after the public expenditure.--He would

given ?

support the present motion, as well as make the duties on the raw material we every other motion for real practical import as moderate as possjblę. If heavy economy which should be made in the and unwise taxation were to be kept up on House (hear, hear!].

the manufacturer, he alone would not be Lord Muron said, that if the Ho- the sufferer: the farmer and the landlord nourable Gentleman (Mr. Burrell) called would share in his hardships & depression. upon the House to protect the lanıled in- It was by the industry of the manufacterest, he (Lord Milton) would extend turers-it was by the enterprise . and that call, he would call upon the Mem- efforts of commercial men, that the rents bers of that House, the Representatives of this country were paid. If, from a of the country, and of its various inte. I narrow and erroneous view, the burthen rests, its'manufactures, commercial and of taxation were shifted on the inanufacfunded, to stop the career of that taxa- turer, for the protection of the agricultion, which affected every class of the turist, the consequence would be, that community. He would put it to his Ho- the country would be driven back to the nourable Friend, the Meinber for Tauno state of ayricultural Poland. But would ton, that even on his view of maintaining the any man wish to see the country reduced funded interests, taration ought to be di- to that state-wuold any man who looked minished. The capital of the country at its condition, who considered the wealth * constituted the security of the funds; it that had been accumulated by trade, the was by that capital, that what was called great improvement that followed, the public credit could be alone maintained il number of beautiful cities and flourishing it would be, therefore, wis rand better to towns which spread themselves over the leave that cupital in the pockets of the peo- face of the country, wislí, by an unwise ple to increase and to fructify, than to interferen e with our commerce and maimpoverish them by e.cessive taxation; nufactures, to reduce the country to the by such ta`ation they would ultimately be state of agricultural Polund und of Russia ? rendered unable to pay what at present If the House took an enlarged view of they met with great oifficulty. He agreed the state of the conntry, they would turn with the Hon. Gentle:an, that the tax un-lheir thoughts to the amount of the taxder consideration was a monstrous tax; ination by which it was pressed down; it was a tax upon the implı ments used by the was not wise to consider any particular industrious population; it was a tax tax ;-the whole question of taxation and which operated unequally and of course expenditure ought to be brought under unfairly. In proportion as the Manufac consideration — taxation, not as it af turer of Corn cariied on his busiliess at fected the agricultural class, or the magreat expence, the tax weighed heavily nufacturing class, but the country at upon hill. But the Labourer who worked Lorge. Ii, indeed, one tax more than at a light soil, and who therefore used another deserved to be repealed, it was fewer horses, was subject to a light tax, the Malt Tar, because the Mall Tax was and ihe weal: hy grazier literally paid no more particularly felt. With respect to thing. He (Lord Milton) was not only the tax con agricultural horses, he would for relieving the Agriculturist froin op.heartily vote for its repeal; and should pressive Taxation, but he thought that the Bill be carried to a Committee, he the manufacturer was equally entitled to would move for the repral of the tax on the consideration of that House ; and now, foreign wool. The Noble Lord next in the year 1821, he could not do better observed, that as to maintaining the than refer to the speech of a Prince, public faith of the country, he was not whose counsels were governed by that for breaking that faith. But was not the wise Administration which for 25 years ap public faith more than maintained ? to the Treary of Utrecht, had remained There was at present a surplus revenue of in power. His Majesty, on addressing four millions. That fund was preserved, his Parliament, had said that it was wor- not as a Sinkiny Find-it would be thy of their attention to weigh well, to ridiculous to call it a Sinking Fund, op consider the duties on the iniportation of the principe on which Mr. Pist had raw materials, for the purposes of manis-originally established it. The plan of facture in this country, with a view to Mr. Pitt' was one of doubtful policy at best, make those duties as low as good policy but when it was once broken in upon, it would adivit of. Nothing to him (Lord might be interfered with to any extent. Milton) could appear more wise than 10 At present," a sum of four millions was

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