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throw from their windows into the never saw this precaution taken street all that we send away with respect to recruits of any without offending any one of the other country; and, I am comsenses ; and that, if it be unhap- pelled to believes that there pily your lot to ascend their stair- was some solid reason for the discase, which is very lofty, you tinction. must take 'special care to tread But, if it really be true, that precisely on the middle, each the state of the labourer in Scotcorner of each step being loaded land is what Scoto has described with filth. The old sayings, too, it to be, how happens it, that we about that tormenting disorder of hear of no emigration to that the skin, which for the sake of country! We hear of emigraŞcoto-Britannus shall here be tion from it, indeed, and of that nameless, seem to correspond we will speak by-and-by ; but, with this account of a want of how comes it, that we hear of no cleanliness in Scotland. When emigration to it ; plenty and hap- a term of reproach is taken up, it piness being commodities which is generally strained in its appli- are, of all others, the surest to cation; but, it seldom prevails to draw customers ? The Pict's wall any extent, and for any length of is surely not standing! No: time, if it have not-some founda- that cannot be, because the tion. I remember also, that, Scotch emigrate in great numwhen Scotch recruits were bers to England, that is to say, brought up to Chatham Barracks, according to Scoto and Mr.Whitit was the invariable practise to bread, from plenty and virtue to send them to a particular ward in poverty and vice, a practice wholly the hospital, there to be anointed at variance with the theory, exand rendered clean, before they cept we suppose, that those who weré permitted even to set their emigrate, hither are all schoolfoot in the - Barrack rooms. I masters coming from motives of

pure philanthrophy, to teach us gree, what I have said about the how we may obtain plenty and tendency of the book education banish poverty and vice ! disinclining men to labour ; for,

Scoto tells me, that there are while, as I before observed, we as many Scotchmen as Euro- can be shewn no colony compeans of all other nations in the posed of Scotch labourers,we know West-Indies, and more in Hin- of many composed, from their dostan, and this he produces as a first settlement, of English, of proof of the industry of his coun- Irish, and of Germans; and, it trymen, owing, as he says, in a is notoriously true, that, of the great part, to their plan of edu- American States, those only cation. I admit it all, without where the cultivation is carried on the least reserve; and, in order by slaves, have, for proprietors . to convince me, that a similar of the soil, any considerable plan of education is desirable number of Scotchmen, or the de-' for England, he has only to scendants of Scotchmen; whence prove, that England would derive comes the saying in. America ; strength from the education of " give the cowkin to the Scotchher most able bodied sons, or,“ man and the hce to the Nethat, remaining at home, slaves" gro;” and, as Mr. ' White could, somehow or other, be brcad's manufactory was profound to work for them. But, fessedly intended for hoers, the he seems here to have forgotten, Scotch plan seems to have been that Mr. Whitbread's intention the very worst that could have was not to educate men for the been adopted. West Indies, not to educate My two instances of undenithem for East India collectors able facts have, as I anticior West India overseers, but for pated, greatly puzzled the ad-' English labourers. This remark vocates of Scotch example. Sco- ' of Scoto confirms, in a great de- ro denies; however, that the

criterion, founded upon the rela-sists,' at the same time, that emitive amount of the taxes, as com- gration is a proof of enterprize and pared with the relative popula- industry. Well, then, as ten tion of England and Scotland, is times as many Irish emigrate, the a fair one; for, says he, many of Irish must be still more enterprizmy countrymen pay taxes in Lon- ing and industrious ! Be it so, don. To be sure they do; but, for argument's sake ; but, again, will you attempt to persuade me, I say, that Mr. Whitbread's plan that it is from Scotch labour that was not intended to prepare the they acquire the means of paying people for the exercise of industhose taxes? This is the point to try in foreign climates; but to keep in view; for we are discuss- make them good labourers at ing, not whether the parish-school home. education tends to make yood get- One observation of mine, and ters of money, but whether it tends that the most important of all, to make good labourers, and to Scoto has quite overlooked ; and make a country productive that was, that at the very time,

As this is all that Scoto-Britan- that a law is proposed to be nus has offered in answer to my passed to educate the poor of argument, founded on the rela- England upon a Scotch plan, with tive amount of the taxes, com-a view of making them as moral, pared with the population, I think as industrious, and as happy as I may leave that argument as it the poor of Scotland, large sums stood before. . . . . are annually granted out of

As to the instance, founded on the fruit of the labourers of the fact of the Scotch emigration England expressly for the purpose to America, Scoto ascribes that of preventing the Scotch from emigration to Sir John Sin- emigrating, by making work for CLAIR's scheme of moulding small them at home. It is truly surfarms into large ones; but, in- prising that Scoto should have


overlooked so material a fact ; persuade us, that the labourers because, without some very sa of the country, who cannot suptisfactory reasons against it, we port themselves without aid from must conclude from this fact, the fruit of English labour, are that the “ flourishing state of proper to be held up as an ex. « Scotland,” about which so ample for English labourers. Nomuch has been said, is a pure fic- thing, surely, but folly bortion; or that, from motives none dering upon idiocy, urged on of the best, the several sets of by importunity and impudence ministers have been guilty of unparalleled,' could have propartiality the most shameful. In duced the insult, of which I comthe year 1806, there was granted, plain, and which I should be out of the taxes, of which Scot- ashamed of myself not to reland pays one seventeenth part, sent . 70,000 pounds to make work up. When we, the lazy and vicious on bridges and canals, in order English, want bridges, roads, and to prevent' labourers from emi- canals, we are obliged to make grating; and 17,000 pounds to them at our own private expense, send food to others of them. This and to pay for acts of parliament is nearly a thirtieth part of the authorising us so to do; but, the whole of the taxes that Scotland industrious, and virtuous Scotch pays; and, observe, that these are to be paid out of the taxes, grants have been going on for that is to say, out of the fruit of years, and are likely to go on for Englishmens labour, for making years to come. Now, I should these things for themselves, while like to see Mr. Malthus apply others of them have, from the his principles to this practice of same source, food sent them to ours; or, to see the Edinburgh induce them to remain in their Reviewers with Mr. Whitbread country; and to prevent a dimi: in their rear, endeavouring to nution in its population! Oh, . wise system of political economy !|“ prizing people.” I do be A system much more closely lieve it, Sir; I know it to be connected with that of the Scotch so; I am well acquainted with boroughs (where, too, virtue is the talents and virtues of a most conspicuous) than many great number of them; and I persons seem to be aware. have always regarded the whole

But, Mr. Whitbread must of them as an excellent people. have had knowledge of these I scarcely ever knew a Scotchgrants; he could not possibly man, whose - word might not be have been ignorant of them; relied upon ; I have generally and, ought hé not, then, to have found them, in very trying times, stopped' until he could have re-bold, amongst the bitterest eneconciled them with the assertion mies, in defence of their country. contained in his preamble, before They are acute, prudent, sober, he had advanced that assertion? faithful; though, in general not Was it for a projector of great adventurous, yet never cowards ; alterations in the manners of the and, though cold in their manners, people; was it for a deep re- kind in their natures. But, Sir, former of morals and dispositions; it is not their parish schools and was it for a law-giver, whose am- their politically appointed pedabition stopped at nothing short of gogues that have made them thus ! a radical revolution in the public. This was their character long bemind, to expose the very basis of fore those schools were thoughtthe schemes to the hostility of of; and while my anxious wish facts such as these, here produced is, that those schools may not and applied by an obscure indi- adulterate that character, I shall vidual ?—“ Believe me, Mr. Cob

use the utmost of my endeavours

to prevent their example, in that “ bett,” says Scoto, in conclusion,

respect, from being followed in “ the Scotch are an industrious, that part of the kingdom, 'to '" an ingenious, and an enter which I more immediately belong.

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