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parsnip and the carrot, for the winter the Barn’s door sends out Swedish turnip; and the greens food for the lean cattle, and a of the Swedish turnip, as you good deal for the pigs; and when have most amply proved, are not April, May and June come, there the least valuable part even of are the Swedish turnips in stacks that plant. By “ beet-root,” I to carry the whole along until suppose you you mean the Man- after Hay making time, when the gel Wurzle. However, they are grazing again begins. . nearly the same thing ; and un- With such a system who need questionably, they are in point of care much about meadows? The fattening quality, greatly inferior Swedish turnip is the better for to the 'Swedisi turnip. When being kept. It loses no part of we think of the thousands and its flesh-giving quality; and you. hundreds of thousands of waggon will find, if you keep a few 'cure loads of Swedish turnip greens, nips round till November, without which are thrown away, or, at suffering them to dry wholly up, best, turned to very little ac- that a hog will prefer the old turcount, it is impossible that your nip to the new. The main thing statement should not be of great to be considered upon a farm is, utility. These greens come pre- what is to feed the pigs and lean cisely at the time when they are cattle in April, May and June. wanted ; that is to say, in Oc- Tell a farmer that you will see tober, November and December, him amply provided for those when the grass is going and is three months, and he will have finally gone. Hogs and lean cat- no hesitation in doubling the stock tle will keep themselves well by which he has kept up to that grazing until the latter end of time, and this, upon a farm of a September ; but, when the sun, hundred and fifty acres, you will which is never too strong in Eng- enable him to do by teaching him land, becomes weak, the grass to cultivate, to manage and to becomes weak in its powers also. apply, according to my method, It diminishes in its quantity,' by fifteen acres of Swedish turnips. degrees, till it is reduced to no. Amongst the benefits which thing; and, with judicious farm- may be derived from this gardening, the Swedish turnip green like system of mine, those which will carry on the stock until the small farmers and even labourers end of December. During the may derive from it, are' by no
means the least; for it is their would be, in the end, the most well-being; it is their belly-full; profitable of the two. When I it is their Sunday coat; it is their have leisure, I may write a little comfortable fire-side and their thing to be called “ Cottage Ecowarm bed; which, as I am sure“ nomy,” which I should be you will think, we ought, above ashamed not to be sure to see all things, to keep in view. A produce more good in one year very small piece of ground, culti-than all the Agricultural Societies vated judiciously, will keep a put together have ever produced cow, and especially of the smaller from their beginning to the presize. I should not be afraid to sent day. undertake, upon pain of passing of the waste which takes place, for a fool if I failed, to keep a in the usual management, or, cow the whole year round on the rather, mis-management, of the produce of a quarter of an acre of Swedish turnip, a very strong land; that is to say, forty rods, instance was given in the case of sixteen feet and a half to the rod my own crop in 1816. At the in length; or two hundred and close of that terrible year of weeds, seventy-two square feet to the coutch grass and charloc, of square rod. It is very well known spoiled hay, of grown wheat, that a man, in full strength and and of barley-cocks rotting in the health can keep such a piece of fields in December, I had fifty ground in good order and perform two acres of transplanted Swedhis daily labour besides. There ish turnips containing, upon an are the wise and children, too, average, not less than twenty plenty of hands, that would do tons to the acre, the rows four nothing else, at the times when this feet a part, and the land as free spot would require them. A cow, from weeds as a parterre. I came however small, would yield, on an to London late in November average, five quarts of milk a to carry on the war against Corday, which is no less than 1,825 ruption. Owing to the falseness quarts in a year! Nothing need and cowardice of the shuffling be said to show the benefit of chief under whose banners I had, these quarts of milk to a family. In:
like an unassuming fool as I was, Besides, in cases where a cow" could not be obtained, pigs could condescended to range myself, we be obiained; and, perhaps, these were defeated, and some of us compelled to flee. My Swedish more satisfaction than I have turnips, the worth of which you derived from almost any thing are able to estimate, brought during the whole course of little or nothing. They were sold my life. The thought which chiefly, I believe, to be what led to the getting of this little they call “ fed off” by Sheep! bag of seed, finally produced the In short, an almost total destruc- book of the utility of which to tion of this really magnificent crop England herself you have borne took place. I knew this. It was such ample and honourable testifull in my mind when I was pre- mony. In America I had testiparing to go off, in order to make monials enough. Farmers came Corruption feel the force of my hundreds of miles to see the man long arm. I knew I was leaving who had given them lessons so my fine crop of turnips to be useful. A very few days before wasted and destroyed; but, though my departure for England a genI had to move, merely with a tleman came to me from a great trunk, and as quick as a post distance out of the state of Conchaise would carry me; though necticut, and told me that he had I left books, papers, and even a large piece of Swedish Turnips, the great part of shirts and coats raised and cultivated precisely acbehind, I found time to get and cording to my directions; that room to contain, ten pounds of there was not one single plant Swedish turnip seed! Nothing wanting in the whole piece; that put this out of my head. No they then, having arrived at only bills and no dungeons frightened about two thirds of their weight, this away. That ten pound of weighed upon an average six turnip seed, which I sent for to pounds a piece; and that he had Mason in the Strand, introduced coine about eighty miles for the the culture ; aye, the general express purpose of giving me culture, of that important plant his thanks, thinking that a letter into the fields of America, and was not, upon such an occasion, enabled me to repay the people a mode of acknowledgement such of that country for the protection as my claims upon bis gratitude and security afforded me by their demanded. As to letters of valour and their wise institutions. thanks, they would have amountI never reflect on this ten pounded to Volumes; and, indeed, I of turnips seed without feeling was at last sorry to receive them, because it was wholly out of my (Mr. EFFINGHAM LAURENCE power to answer them; and this told me, in October 1819, that I'was obliged to state in the pub- an acre and a half of Swedish lic newspapers. I know that a Turnips, which he bad at four great number of persons have feet distances, were worth more tried my method in England, and thun any TWENTY ACRES of with great success, too; and, Indian Corn that he had upon his therefore, your manly acknow- farm. GENERAL GIBBS, at ledgement of its merits, stand- Newtown, Long Island, told me, ing as it does alone, has the in the same month, that his Swegreater claim to public approba- dish Turnips (thirteen acres) were tion. The Americans, let them worth more than all the produce, be of what party they would, corn, grain, 'hay and all, upon were always forward, not only to the rest of his farm, which conacknowledge but to proclaim the sisted of about two hundred acres ! benefits they derived from my What must the state of things work; but then they were not be, then in England, when a base borne down by Corruption; they scoundrel can venture to endeadid not live in fear of her fangs; vour to calumniate into inutility they were, in short, freemen, as labours tending to such great and their and our forefathers were. solid public advantage, and who They were under no apprehen- can do this, too, from the most sions of being turned out of house corrupt of all possible motivés ? and home; of being harassed As to the earth-burning it is by by the agents of any tyranny; no means an invention of mine. of being marked out for ruin for I was taught it, as I have stated doing justice to their instructor. in my work, by Mr. WILLIAM It will easily be believed, that I GAUNTLETT, of Winchester, late had political opponents enough a Commissary, I believe, in Spain (for, strange as it may seem, or Portugal. I tried it, found Corruprion has numerous well-it to answer extremely well, and paid agents even across the At-communicated the thing to those lantic); but, no one dared to go who chose to read my writings. so far as to act the part of the It might have occurred to us all base scoundrel of the “ Far-long ago ; for, when a field has “ MER's WeekLY JOURNÁL.” been couched, as we call it; that One gentleman, in Long Island is to say, when the roots of
grass and clods of earth have see a man mow from three to four. been collected into heaps, and acres of grass in a day, carrying burnt, in a ploughed field, we sa swarth full eight feet wide! have, all our lives long, seen, Strange thing, that those giants in the darker colour and stronger should have sprùng from Englishstems of the plants, afterwards men! But, the truth is, the, grown upon the ground, à proof bodies and limbs of the Engof the goud effect of the ashes. lish have grown smaller than they Now, what ashes are these? Of were only forty years ago. Why the roots of the grass? I will not! Do not we see all animals engage, that a common heap of fall off if kept badly, and especouch, free from all earth, does cially if worked hard too. To not produce a wine-glass full of have the horse fine must we not ashes! No: it is the earth, ad- feed the dam and the colt well ? hering to the grass roots, and There is, then, no mystery in the burnt along with them, that the fact that four Yankee mowers will ashes proceed from. And, if weigh down eight English ones. these ashes, from which the When a man gets the price of ,, smoke has escaped into the air a bushel of wheat for his day's. to be carried away by the wind, work, he may carry a good wide are efficacious as manure, what swarth! However, there is no must those ashes be, 'which, by doing justice to America without the process mentioned in my going to see it. If you could see work, have the smoke inclu led their mile-long bridges, without in them?
la single pier, waggons going over Before I quit the'muck and and vessels sailing under; if you 6 mire” let me tell you, that could see them with forty oxen to there are a great many fine a plough, forming a new turnthings, in this way, to be seen pike road just as you would form in America. To a real hus- a ten-furrow ridge in one of your bandman, it must be a very fields. If you could see them with pleasing thing to behold Jabourers a team of twenty or thirty oxen, 89 well-fed and so strong as to and only one one man, with what be able to cradle from four to six (they call a scraper, filling in the English acres of Wheat or Rye in roots and smoothing and rounda day, laying the straws as ling a turnpike road at the rate of sinooth àsrods in a bundle; to three miles an hour to each side,