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« strange financial systems ;" and taxes were collected at home, and it calls the stoppage of cash pay- whose blood flowed in rivers by ments at the Bank a system of land as well as by sea. These ( no very ordinary character.”— were the people who made exerNow, was this system a thing to tions during the war; and for be censured or was it not ?. If it which exertions they have been was not why do you speak of it paid by the acts and proceedings in this equivocal manner? “Wil- which have taken place since the « ling to wound and yet afraid to beginning of 1817. The Land

“ strike.” And well you might lords bórrowed money to carry on - be afraid; for your own father, the war; they contracted that

who supported the bill for impri-debt, which will finally deliver us soning men in 1817 was one of by laying it's weight upon them. those Privy Councillors who I have proved as clear as daysigned in 1797 that. Order in light in my letter to Mr. ATTCouncil which authorised the WOOD, that it was a deduction Bank to refuse to pay their notes from the wages of labour that in cash! Which Order in Coun- yielded the taxes collected during eil was the root of all that train of the war; and, therefore, let us causes, to discover which you hear no more of " unparalleled. now state to be one of the great" exertians," unless those exerproblems of the present day! - tions be ascribed to the labouring There is no apology to be offered class. for those who adopted that mea- The seventh paragraph must sure; and when your Lordship have contained news indeed to talks, in the cant of the day, of the persons to whom the letter the unparalleled exertions, to was written. Here we hear served which the country “was unged up, in grand style, and with as “on” during the war, you might much formality as if the thing be asked, who made those exer- was now mentioned for the first tions? Not the Landlords ; not time since the world begun, my the great Merchants and Farmers; old illustrations about the bushet not the Bankers; not the Fund- of wheat, the interest of the holders ; not the Lawyers; not Debt, and all the other A. B. Ç. the Parsons ; no: the exertions of paper against Geld written and were made by the labouring published eleven years ago ! The classes from whose wages the wonder is how you could have had

the face to put this upon paper as glimpse of hope of escaping a proceeding from yourself. After terrible convulsion. : s this striog of plagiarisms, you You proceed in this seventh par say, that you are happy to per- ragraph in talking of a diminution ceive, that“ thistruth(meaning of burthens. You do not part the augmenting of the interest of ticularize, otherwise you might the Debt by the cash payment have thought of Buoke's posthiuLaws), is “ beginning to make its mous pension of 2,500l. a year. 66, way.” Beginning to make its You fall at once upon the Debt, way. aye; but who caused it to and in these remarkable terpas : begin to make its way? That " relief must in all probability be question is unnecessary even in " of a trifling nature. I say in the remotest corners of this king-“ all probability, because I see dom. You say, that you are con- " ut present no symptom that the vinced, “ that the Agricultural public will agree on any plan

mind cannot be properly direct" for diminishing the pressure off 65 ed till it is satisfied on this the Debt; and it is the Debte “ point.” Precisely what the which constitutes by far the Agricultural mind may mean I greatest portion of our bunthens.” cannot say ; nor do I know what Oh! brave! Here we have it sort of direction you may wish to then, at last ! If words, have any give the Agricultural mind when meaning, you here express a wish it shall be thus brought to a state that the interest of the Debt may of perfection; but for my own be diminished ! Did I not say part, I am persuaded, that the that it would come to this? Did Agricultural mind is pretty well I not tell the Reformers so, in that made up, and that the chief thing address to them which I left to be now to do is to bring the Borough published, when I retreated to mongering, mind, into a proper Long Island, in order to be in state of docility ; an object which security, while I carried on the I am quite persuaded will be act war against Corruption ? Did I complished by the time that wheat, not tell them that in four years gets down to four shillings a from that day (twenty-eighth of bushel! When the Borough- March, 1817,) that the system mongering mind. shall be brought would be shaken to pieces? Lord into a proper state, then, and not Liverpool in the House of Lords, ill then will this: nation, see a boasted that the power of imprir


sonment Bill had caused the And shall we not have the feast Funds to rise !. What does that of the Gridiron ? And shall not same Lord say now? In the the bones of PAINE be present at debate of the fourth of May, the the feast! Shall not the ashes of following are his words : “ he that truly great man triumph “ agreed that it would be impo- over his base and malignaut foes ? - « litic and disgraceful to break This Nation has suffered ; it has “ faith with the public Creditor; drunk deep of sorrows, since its “ but if the country could not pay, misguided millions, led on chiefly “ he would prefer the direct and by Parsons, burnt him in effigy. “ candid course of making the Those millions have suffered “ avowal at once, and reducing indeed; and no man in exisience the interest, to any expedient can have deplored their sufferings “by affecting the same object by more than he would have done, « less apparent means." This whose name they so foully calumis quite enough to begin with. niated and whose person they Like the fawn in the fable, his would have torn to pieces. Those Lordship will grow bolder and sufferings, if Peel's bill be enbolder by degrees. In the mean forced, the millions will no longer while, the necessity of reduction have to indure. Not thus will it comes upon us from all sorts of be with their deluders; with those, lips and from all sorts of pens. who perverted their minds, who Even the parsons cry aloud for it: urged them on to the dastardly and a beneficed Clergyman, the acts and who furnished the fagencumbent of HOLMPIRTH in gots, round the blaze of which, your own County of York, has like savages, they danced while sent forth a “cheap publication they vomited forth calumnies and on the subject, which he sells for execrations on the man, whose

three pence, and to which he pre- talents were an honour to bis : fixes as a text the following pas- country and a benefit to mankind.

sage from the Bible : “ a false The turn of these deluders is now balance is abomination to the come. They are beset with dif6* Lord, but a just weight his ficulties : they know not what is • delight.” So, here' is the to happen unto them : they call church coming forward to demand for help and there is no one to the putting in practice of the political teaching of Paint and assist : and, do what they will, of COBBett!

the result must be such as will

reflect the bighest honour upon much as they were before the those whom they have pursued stoppage of cash payments at the with the deepest malignity. Bank; or, rather,' before the

As to the justice of reducing the commencement of old pensioner interest of the debt, the currency BURKE's holy war against Athebeing what it now is, and the ism. For (and it is material to price of wheat being what it now make the observation), prices had is, it is so manifest, that it would greatly risen, long before the stopbe waste of time to produce any page took place al the Bank! This arguments in support of it, to my it is material to keep in mind. readers, who are men of sense, The Bank had not stopped; but. and, therefore, must see it as its paper was depreciated neverclearly as they see the light of the theless. Paine said so a year besun. Indeed, every one sees it; fore the stoppage took place., and as to a “plan,” as far as He most admirably illustrated the the debt is concerned there is no difference between insolvency and plan wanted, the thing being bankruptcy. He said the former merely a deduction at every pay- had taken place already; and that ment of interest. But, there must the latter would take place, whenbe a great deal more done besides ever the people should go to the this; and to do this great deal Bank and demand payment of more, demands a great deal more their notes. In less than a twelveof knowledge and of 'talent than month' from that day, the Bank, the author of this circular letter stopped payment in cash! And, appears to possess. We shall see to the shame of our country be it : s when the time comes, and that spoken, this was the Englishman will be quite soon enough, what whom 'millions of Englishmení will be done. In the mean while, were, by English parsons, inone thing must certainly be done; duced to burn in effigy! and that is, to reduce the salaries The depreciation, therefore, of the judges, which were twice did 'really take place before the augmented, upon the express stoppage at the Bank, and it was ground of the rise in the price of absolute injustice not to raise the provisions. Their salaries were salaries of the judges sooner than doubled ; and not unjustly; for they were raised. But, now that they were worth at the time of the price of wheat is come down their being doubled, only half as to what it was before BURKE's

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388 crusade, those salaries ought to of one third; while more than return to their former standard, that third was all taken away for the not doing of which there again by additional taxes on his can be no possible excuse. All salt, his soap, his candles, his salaries and pay ought to be beer, his sugar, his tea, his shoes reduced in the same manner; and and on niany other almost indisit is quite evident that this must pensible commodities! And yet, be done, before a fraction of my Lord, with these undeniable deduction can be made from the facts before you, and with hu- .

interest of the debt. There is manity on your lips, you express , one exception to this however; your sorrow that high prices are

namely, the pay to the Soldiers not likely to return! The Miand Sailors. It is just the dou- nisters, thank God, seem resolvble; or, rather more than the ed that they shall not return; double of what it was in the early and an everlasting curse light part of the“ year 1785, when I upon the man who shall attempt had the honour to take a musket to thwart them in this their resoon my shoulder. It was raised | lution. . during the war and high prices. But, why do I make an excepAnd here let me stop to observe, tion with regard to the Soldier what a striking proof we have of and the Sailor? Why are they the correctness of the statements not to return, the Soldier, for and the reasoning in my letter to instance, 'to his sixpence a day? Mr. Attwood! The Soldier's Because it ought not to have been pay was doubled during high sixpence a day; because I

prices. But were the labourer's remember well what sixpence . wages doubled! Oh, no! He, a day was. I have read,

poor starving creature bore the in the life of Baron Trenck, a brunt and beat of the war! The most horrible description of the Landlord's rent was more than feelings of hunger. He describes doubled; the farmer's prices himself as hurrying away from a were more than doubled ; the woman who had some victuals in Judge's salaries were doubled; the her hand, feeling a temptation to Police Justice's pay was nearly take the food, and to commit mura: doubled; the Soldier's pay was der in order to screen himself doubled; but the Labourer's from the penalties attached to wages never received the addition robbery ! I never thought of

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