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But, be you assured, that this will fried labourer iu his parish brewed not be done. . .. This own beerand, that, now,
From the same cause will re- not a man did it, except he himturn the custom of furnishing self, in charity, gave the poor beer to the out-of-house labourers. fellow the malt! And, will the The farmer can brew cheaper House, upon evidence like this, (besides the saving in tax) than pass a law to reproduce and perthe alehouse keeper can sell. The petuate high-prices ? . Will the farmer has, in many parts, wood House do this thing! -, that costs little. It is a part of From the same cause many farmhis produce; and the brewing is ing bankers (for really they are not done by his maids, under the husbandmen) will be totally ruined, direction of his wife. And he and their big-farmas will become will, in this way, pay in kind as untenanted, Others will be afraid far as he can. The married la- to embark in 80 large a way. bourers will brew at home also for Farming will not be (as it ought their wives and children ; and not to be) a fortune making affair. some ale for theić “ groanings" Rich men will not want to be and christenings, as they used farmers. The speculating, disto do universally. The spiritless counting farming will wholly enfeebling slop, the materials for cease, Few men will be found which are flogged out of negro (as 'it ought to be) to take to slaves, or screwed out of the mi- farms of large extent. Hence serable wretches of Asia, and these enormous farmes will be which are almost wholly tax, will divided ; or, rather, they will be give way, by degrees to the invi-, what they were before the infernal gorating produce of our own soil. Pitt-system began : there will be And, what should you think, now, upon an average, in a very few if the Committee of GAPFER years, about four farmers where Goocu have evidence to this point there is now one. The little intoo!. My little bird has whistled dustrious, decent, rural hives will in my ear, that they have it in come back to be again the basis 'evidence, and, what is monstrously of that English community, which, good, from the mouth of the only forty years ago, was really Elder Ellman who has told “ the enyy of surrounding nations
1" and justly the admiration of the them, that, forty years ago, when world.” 'In many cases, tenants he became a farmer, every mar- will not, at first, be found on
any terms. But, the owner will not seat at table with his plowman let the land lie to produce thistles and his maids, his son will, nowe and brambles. He will put a and-then, marry a servant maid, skilful and trusty labourer inte and the carter will sometimes the farm, and will furnish the marry the farmer's daughter. stock himself, till he can find a Thus will come back that comtepant. This will be a sort of munity of interests and feelings 65.farming upon shares," so-com- which the infernal Pitt-system of monly practised in America. Paper-money has driven away. Some of these labourers will be- Here is the cure, and the only come farmers; and they must, cure, for the eril. of pauperisms in order to occupy all the farms. The good things of the land, the Apd, Sir, you will see the poor- food and raiment, will be more rates come down in great haste, equally distributed. The class without any of the projects of of labourers, and that of farthat ignorant and hard-hearted mers will be so blended as to fellow MALTHUS, or any of the leave but very few, nothing but contrivances of that son of a the mere helpless and profligate, Parson, Mr. STURGES BOURNE, to become paupers. The “pro who is the Chairman of the sperity” of the paper-money Hampsbire Quarter Sessions, and people; the gay cavalry farmer; who merely speaks the voice of the show; the false glare; these the Hampshire Parsons. Wheat will disappear; but the misery at four shillings a bushel will hang and pauperism will disappear all the schemes of this “ amiable along with them. England. will “ friend," as Canning called be what it formerly was: a less him, up to dry, and to be ready splendid and more happy land. preserved in the archives of the And, this, Sir, is what you are Pitt-Clubs, to be bronght forth endeavouring to prevent; but, for use, if the Devil should ever thank God, you labour in vain. again have the power of causing But; say you,“ you confine the Pitt and Paper system to “ yourself to the labourers in return.
. .. l" husbandry, and have no care · The farmer being taken from “ about other labourers: do you his cavalry horse, having again " care nothing about craftsmen put on the smock-frock, and bav- " and manufacturers ?” Yes, ing, along with his wife, taken just as much as I care about the
labourers in husbandry. They (very considerable portion of the are all objects of attention; and, whole of the population of the I appeal to my writings for the kingdom. Then the smiths, whole of my life for proof, that wheelwrights and collar-makers, their welfare has always been the and village taylors and shoe-ma- main object of my labours; thai kers, are, in fact, labourers in it has never ceased, for a day, to husbandry ; for, if they do not be an object of my most anxious work upon, they work for, the solicitude. Here, at any rate, I farms. Now, what have low may bid defiance to the empty prices done for them?' My little and lying cry of inconsistency." bird has come to me from GAFBorn amongst husbandmen, bred Fer Gooch's Committee, and to husbandry, delighting in its told me, that the witnesses one pursuits even to the minutest de- and all declare, that they have tails, never having, in all my not yet been able to bring down range through life, lost sight of the prices (that is the wages) of the English farm-house and of these retainers of husbandry ! those scenes in which my mind They say, that they have tried. took its first spring, it is nalural to bring them down; but have that I should have a strong par- not yet succeeded. One of the tiality for a country life, and that witnesses being asked, whether I should enter more in detail into these people were not bettered, the feelings of labourers in hus- then, by the fall of prices, anbandry than into those of other swered, that they got more than labourers. But, in: my wishes their masters ; and, being asked, and endeavours I have the wel- who he meant by their masters, fare of all in view; and that is to he said, the farmers. Now, this have in view the welfare of my is what my little bird tells me; country; for, if that class, which and I have never found him to
is tueny times more numerous tell me stories. If, therefore, this than all the others, be depressed, be true, here is another numerous be miserable, be degraded, the class of labourers benefitied by country can have no honour, no “ agricultural distress.” And, permanent power; and it is infa- in the face of all this, will this mous to call it happy. I Committee report in favour of
The labourers in husbandry; a measure" to reproduce highstrictly so called, form, indeed, a prices ? :
Well, but is this all? What| Mr. BARING has complained to effect has low-price had upon the House, that the fellows “out that numerous class the house-" of doors" (the phrase is a good servants of all descriptions, male one), particularly the post-boys and female, old and young ? and stone-sawyers (at Scrip3 Why, to be sure, to add to their Castle, I suppose) will not come . wages. Have you lowered the down in their wages! He may wages of your men and maids ? tell the House of it again, with Very little, I believe. Have they out 'producing any effect! The not gained, then? Can they not labourers mean to get“ in doors” . clothe themselves better than they once more. They have been did, and save some little money“ out of doors” long enough. too, to be laid by, not in old rags, And, is it not the same with caror deposited in Savings Banks penters, masons, brick-makers, and moonshine ; but, in that gold and all the labourers employed in which we must have, if the Mi- building? Yes is it. Even printers nisters persevere ? Now, either have not budged an inch, and I house-servants' wages have been rejoice at the circumstance. It reduced nearly one half, since is certain, that the wages of all 1818, or they must have been the labouring classes will come gaining ever since that time. It down something in time; but, it is notorious, that their wages have will be slowly; always keeping come down but a very little; and, at a respectful distance behind the therefore, it is clear, that they bushel of wheut; and, therefore, aré gainers by low prices. This never coming down in the proclass is very numerous. . It in- portion of wages against wheat at cludes gardeners, butlers, coach- high-price times. This is so, bemen, grooms, footmen, house-cause it must be so : because it is keepers, cooks, and all the long in the nature of man, and in the train of female domestics. Here nature of things. . If the wheat are boys, girls, persons of all were to stand where it is now, ages : and here we must include which is much about the mark of stage-coachmen, ostlers, post- the average price of the period boys, and all the servants at Inns. of ten years immediately preceall belonging to the labouring ding the crusade against the peoclass, and all gainiug by low ple of France, and if the taxes prices.
on their salt, malt, and so forth,
were to be reduced to what they |I am well aware, that the labourwere at that time, wages mighting manufacturers of Birmingham come down, in the long run, to are suffering severely, and I am the standard of that day; but very sorry for it, thougli I take no lower. And, it would be in pleasure in the ruin of the " big the long run, too, mind; and the “ ruffians," who have been, so young men and women of the long, such bitter enemies of Renext ten or fifteen years would, form and justice. But, Birmingall thut while, be gaining back ham is by no means a fair specià part, at least, of that, which men. Its manufacture depended, . has been purloined from their in a great measure, essentially fathers and mothers by the infer- upon war; and, of course, must nal paper-system... : : be depressed by peace: War
There remains only one class must not be carried on for ever, of labourers to be noticed : those lest the makers of arms should engaged in manufactures, and want employment and should collected in large bodies. Now, therefore have to endure sufferhere we may, in a few particular ings, however severe and unmeinstances, find exceptions; but, I rited. This, therefore, is an exam persuaded, that we shall find ception, which, upon the whole, them few, and, though the sufferers makes not the weight of a straw are entitled to our most anxious against my argument. As to the solicitude and to every possible cotton and wool manufacture, I exertion for their relief, we shall am satisfied, that the lot of the find that even their suffering, workmen is bettered by the low however acute, is not, for one prices. The average wages of a moment, to be put in comparison cotton weaver is now 9 shillings with the well-being of miltions! a week; and that is better than The whole of the population 20 shillings a week during the strictly manufacturing does not time of high-prices. It is not amount to half a million of per- enough, considering the deducsons, in the whole; while the tion made by the taxes, more than strictly agricultural population (1 was made on that account before am speaking of Great Britain the Anti-Jacobin war. But, still only) amounts to nearly five mil- it is better than 20 shilings à lions. And, why should this half week, when wheat was at 14 million suffer from low prices ? shillings a bushel. The wages of