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6 from the distress of low prices|labour is beneficial to the unhappy
I know, that, upon a subject with regard to the labourers in like this, facts must be very good husbandry in England, Mr. Husindeed, very complete, to be KISSON, whom you treat rather worth any thing at all; because sarcastically, may be right, after they are so difficult to come at all. Indeed, I am convinced that . with accuracy; and, because, he is right : and that únquestionif capable of being bent, bent they able facts, as well as the reason of will be, to assist the man who has the case, års on his side and.. an argument to support. against you. . .,
Your argument, that the la- You, Sir, are a banker, and, : bourer is not to be benefitted by the without 'imputing to you any . diminution of the demand for motive particularly selfish, I may labour is, generally, and suppos- fairly suppose, that you viefv, ing'a not unnatural state of things, with favourable eyes the effects true. With this qualification it of bank-paper. You uniformly is also true, that the labourer take it for granted, that the showy cannot le benefitted by the ruin of effects of rags turned into monej, his employer. But, a forced, an is “ prosperity.” This is full as ünnatural, a violent process, may great an error as the measuring be adopted, which shall increase of the effects of Peel's Bill by the the demand for labour, shall in-variation in the price of gold. crease the quantity of labour; and You say, that, at this moment, yét, that shall make the labour the nation is in the deepest dislower-priced, and the condition of tress ; that the concerns of agric the labouřer worse. Fór, it is not to culture, manufactures, commerce, be denied, that à Virginia or Ja-Tall'are involved in the deepest maica Negro-Driver, if he ply distress. And what you say is the lash with additional activity, true. Will you tell me, thèn, ,' will increase the quantity of labour, how it happens, that about 'ten though he give his Negroes 'no thousand new houses are building is ' more food than he did liefore. at this moniënt for the reception And, it will hardly be pretended, of rich men and their suites in the that this his increased demand for villages round this - monstrous
place? Are these new-comers to be now under a su:eating pro- . arrived from the clouds, or from cess and Birmingham and CovenEldorado? The fact you may try. These gentry do not call ascertain by getting upon a horse our ten thousand new houses a and opening your eyes. Is it sign of " prosperity." No, say commerce that brings these gentry they, it is robbery of us. We here? Oh, no! for the wharfs suffer for your fine new houses are deserted, and the ships break- and all your pretty gardens and ing up to be turned into paddock- paddocks. We suffer for your fences and coach-houses for these Regent-Street and Regent-Park .odd sort of gentry. Now, Sir, and your Circusses and Squares answer me, I pray: is it "pro- and Bridges. They say very " sperity” that brings these gentry truly forth? Yes, assuredly, it is Now, Sir, just as the Bigs prosperity” with them. They farmer, the Bull-frog-farmer, is come into these new and fine suffe.irg under this prosperity of houses to enjoy that good fortune, the Annuitant and Salary-man, which the rise in the value of their so the labourer suffered from the funded annuities and fixed sala- prosperity of the Bull-frog. The ries has given them! This, to Bull-frog's house changed its them, then, is prosperity; and, you form. His garden became a paacknowledge that, at this very radise. He had white paling and time, the concerns of land, manu-paddocks. Out he drove his factures and commerce are in a corters and threshers, whom he state of ruin !
began to call “ the peasantry;". Well, then, there may exist and that empty impudent fellow, prosperity, in one class and mise- the younger ELLMAN, actually ry in anotrer, at one and the calls them so now, in a Letter to same time. These annuitants Lord Liverpool. He could no and salary-people profit by the longer, polished Gentleman, sit fall of those who profited before. at table with such “ lower orders.” These houses, this unnatural pro- But, he took good care, that they sperity, this fungus, comes out should not overfeed elsewhere. of the pockets of the Big-farm- He took good care, that they ers, the Landlords, the Lords of should not participate in his the Loom, and the Lords of the prosperity.” He, by means Anvil, many of whom you know that the greediness and injustice
and cruelty of an insolent upstart frily imy:lies an unreservedness of at once suggested, took care, that, faith, which he may be excused while his prices rose, the price of for carrying into profane disquilabour should be kept down to sitions, and which, if it do not the lowest possible standard. He absolutely justify his believing violated all the principles of that a woman labourer used to free trade, by fixing the amount earn what would now be equivalent of wages, and by bringing to the to forty shillings a week, forms, at posr-book, all those who could not least, an apology for the Divine exist upon that amount! And, if Doctor. However, the thing is the miserable wretches mutinied, by no means so whelly incredible he had bis horse, his carabine, and as you would have us believe; for, his sword!
the women labourers or helps, as You talk of labour being car- they call them,' in America, do ried to market! What market not receive much less, and that, :.ad the labourer to go, when, in 100, when wheat is at a price fact, there was a book kept in much lower than our present every parish to fix the price of price. A man labourer has there his wages? He was to have just five shillings, at least, of our moas much as would sustain life in ney, a day, in harvest time, and a single man and no more. To sits at table with his employer ! prevent actuul starration, the And that, too, when wheat is not married man was to have aboye fire English shillings a more in proportion to the number bushel. So that, though the Docof mouths. Do you call this car- tor's authorities to prove that our rying labour to market? Was labourers have suffered by high there any more freedom here, prices, be' not quite unexceptionthan the Virginia or. Jamaica able, the facts drawn from them slave enjoys ? Was the increased are by no means so incredible as demand for labour, under such you would represent them. The circumstances, a lenefit to the la- state of England at the times to bourer?
· which the Doctor refers was, in Your comments on Dr. Cop- all probability, as to agricultural plestone's facts are, perhaps, no matters, somewhat like that of more than just. You should, America now: the farmers very howerer, bear in mind the call- numerous, and the labourers coming of ihe Doctor, which necessa-I paratively fero in number. The
funding system, by drawing mo- augmentation of wages. Every pey into large parcels, necessarily rise in price, therefore, gives the reduced the number of the farm- employer an advantage over him; ers; and Pitt's infernal system of for, observe, labourers in huspaper-money, by enabling a bandry are more restricted in banker, an attorney, or some their choice of employers, than one who would dash into the dis- labourers in manufacture and counting line, to take farms over crafts are. They cannot go to the heads of small farmers, swept next shop. They are under enaway that race of men, brought gagements as yearly, or monthly, them down to be mere labourers, servants, and are bound by very put them upon the parish-book strict laws. The married ones kept for the fixing of wages, and generally inhabit the houses of made them very nearly, excepting their employers, and even the colour of skin, resemble the la- single ones out of house, must rebourers of Virginia and Jamaica. move to some considerable dis? It is not high price simply that tance, perhaps, in order to get hurts the labourer; for, if he have employment. They must go six shillings a week when wheat from home; and there is “ mother" as three shillings a bushel, and to be left! There are mother's twenty when wheat is ten shillings remonstrances to hear; and, it a bushel, and if the rise in wages would require another thirty years' keep pace weekly with the rise in progress of the hellish Pitt-Systhe price of wheat, he is as well tem, to eradicate the power of off in the latter case as in the these from the breasts of homeformer, if there be no other cir- loving English sons. But, there? cumstance attending the rise in is one plain case, that settles the prices. It is not, therefore, point, and that requires no knowsimply the high price that hạrts ledge of country-affairs to make him, if prices of wages and of it clear to every man : and that wheat keep on the level. But, is this : it is a notorious fact, that in the first place, they do not keep nine tenths of the labourers are on the level. The wages do not either in house as yeurly servants, rise with the wheat. A long time or engaged for the year at so mucle takes place, even in a natural and a week for all the weeks except unforced state of things, before the harvest month, and so much the labourer can get even a small for that month. Now, let us take
- the case of the carter in house. Thus, then, clear as is that
At Michaelmas he hires for seven accursed thing, which is, yoų pounds for the year, and wheat is know," as notorious as the sun at seven shillings a bushela Out" noon-day," is the conclusion, comes the atrocious, the hellish that the labourer in husbandry paper-money ; wheat rises to 14 suffers and the employer profits shillings a bushel before his year by a rise in the prices of produce expires and he receives ten bushels of the labour, in spite of any of wheat, instead of the twenty augmentation that may take place that he contracted for! Is he in the quantity of labour in denot, then, a loser by the rise in mand. prices ? Can any man living We have yet, however, but an deny this? It is the same, in a imperfect view of the effects of a different degree, with the men rise of prices. · The Landlord out of house, They suffer still raises his rent. The taxes rise in more severely; for they have to nominal amount. But the conpurchase their food, which the sumer pays these back to the farman in house has not, You will mer. He neither gains nor loses observe, that the law gives them by high prices as far as rent and the choice of sticking to the letter taxes are concerned. His gain of their engagements, or going to comes solely out of the blood and jail!
flesh and bones of the labourer. Well, but the year ends at last. The labour upon a farm makes They live it out; and then they more than the half of its outgohave new bargains to make. Now, ings; judge, then, how the farmer do you think, that they will get must gain by the same process their wages doubled? Do you that depresses the labourer! Will think that a year of oppression you say, that whạt the farmer will have made them bold? Do does not pay in wages he must you think that being pennyless pay in poof-rates? Oh, no! for, and shirtless will make them stout when the man comes to that book, in standing out for a rise of that record of degradation, he is a wages ? If you do, pray, do not slave. He then must take what affect to laugh at Dr. COPPLE-/ is given him. What he receives, STONE any longer for your faith he receives as an alms; and the
sum total of the rules of that book in wonders is much larger than is, to allow as much as will sustain his. . . . . . J
life, and no more!