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long suffice for it? He of all wen is most deeply concerned in puttina an end 10 a policy which is laying the axe to tbe root of British prus. perity.
diately experienced by the execution of the works at Wallsend and Bill Point, will create a strong desire among the members of the Corporation for the early accomplishment of the remain. ing improvements described in this Keport, and which will not require more than two years to execute, whenever the necessary funds shall be arailable,
I have the bonour to be, Sir,
W. A. BROOKS.
from the Channel of the River Tyne, between Nerocastle and Hay Hill Point. Cost of five jetties, as per plan, in the bight opposite St. Peter's.
£805 00 Ditto, three jetties opposite St. Anthony's
906 100 Ditto, three jetties in the bight above Bill Point
815 00 Ditto, seven jetlies in Bill Reach or Long Beach
1,353 0 0 Ditto, six jetties in the bight below Walker
2,970 0 0 Ditto, one jetty at Willington .....
594 0 Ditto, seveo jetties on the Jarrow shore..
3,613 10 0 Ditto, five jetties on the north shore of Jarrow Slake...... 4,405 10 0
£15,492 10 0 For stone, clay, and other contingent expenses in the construction of the above jetties, 10 per cent.
1,549 50 £17,041 15 0
DURHAM WINTER SESSIONS, JAN., 1843. The following is a copy of the usual “summary" appended to the calendar:The number of prisoners committed to the Gaol and House of
Correction during the year endicg Dec. 31, 1841, including debtors
1,368 Ditto, ditto, 1842.
1,434 Increase during the present year
66 Total number of persons committed to the Gaol and House of
Correction during the three months epding Dec. 31, 1841... Ditto, ditto, 1842...
375 Increase as compared with the corresponding period of last year, 91 Number of Prisoners confined in the Gaol and House of Correction,
1841. 1942. Debtors...
27 23 Felonies for trial at the Assizes
8 Ditto ditto at the Sessions
18 48 Misdemeanors ditto
8 10 Prisoners under sentence in Gaol
3 Ditto in the House of Correction
25 46 Ditto for time ditto
74 61 Vagrants
48 55 Total
218 254 Educational Analysis.—There were 62 prisoners in the calendar, varying in age from 14 to 61; of whom 19 could neitber read nor write; 31 could read, or read and write im. perlectly; 3 could do so well; and for the rest there was no return.
THE REVENUE:-ALARMING DECREASE.
By the Morning Chronicle of yesterday (Jan. 6), which we have received by express, we learn that the national revenue continues to fall away with portentous rapidity.
The revenue for the last quarter (says our contemporary) bears fearful evidence of the ruinous policy pursued by the party in power.
On the year ending 5th January, 1813, as compared with the year ended 5th January, 1842, there is a decrease of £922,630.
On tbe quarter ended 5th January, 1913, as compared with the quarter ended 5th January, 1842, there is a decrease of not less than £940,962, thougb the property tax has been two quarters in operation.
On the year there is a decreaseIn the Customs, of...
£824,275 In the Excise, of
..1,173,614 In the Stamps, of
............ 218,346 in the Taxes, of
209,319 In the Crown Lands, of
£2,454,554 There is an increase In the Post Office, of
.£150,000 In the Miscellaneous, of
481,673 And there is the two quarters' Property Tax,
£1,251,825 This is the real deficiency in the revenue of the year; but it is reduced by a god-send, as Imprest ană other Monies, £157,288, and Repayment of Advances, £171,912.
But the quarter exhibits a still more gloomy state of things.
There is a decreaseIn the Custoins, of
£581,185 In the Excise, ot
717,262 In the Stainps, of
56,763 In the Taxes, of ..
23.847 In the Crown Lands, of
£1,388,057 There is an increaseIn the Post Office, of
.£14,ono In the Miscellaneous, of
6,485 And there is the quarter's Property Tax,..
LAUNCH OF AN IRON CLIPPER.-We feel great pleasure in announcing to our readers the launch of another iron vessel from the building-yard of Mr. J. H. S. Coutts, at Walker, on the forenoon of the 4th Jan., amid the cheers of a select party, assembled on the occasion, Mrs. J. T. Carr performing the ceremony of breaking the bottle. The vessel is called the Flash-a name well chosen, being indicative ot speed, which the vessel gives every promise of possessing. She is of the description of vessels called clippers, and, for beauty of model and excellence of workmanship, bids fair to excel any vessel yet afloat, either of wood or iron. She is constructed upon the parabolic principles, laid down by Chapman, the most celebrated and scientific marine architect on record. We teel surprised that a translation of his works into the English language, has not been long ere now effected; and we consider our shipbuilding friends are indebted to Mr. Coutts, for setting them the example of following so jnstly famed an authority. The Flash is intended for the fruit trade, and is owned by our worthy townsman, J. T. Carr, Esq., Mr. Coutts, and Mr. Peacock, a resident of Gibraltar. Mr. Coutts has favoured us with the following particulars :Length of keel
81ft. Oin. Ditto on deck
97 ft. Oin. Ditto over all
1041t. Oin. Main breadth
22ft. 4in. Builders' measurement
216 tons. Draught of water when loaded with 200 tons 10ft. Oin. She has two water tight bulk-heads, dividing her into three compartments. The decks are constructed on the same prin. ciples as those of the Prince Albert, with an iron tongue between cach deck deal, rendering the process of caulking almost un. necessary. She will have Newall & Co.'s wire rigging, Porter's anchors, Caldwell's revolving windlass, and Ericsson's sounding instrument, all patented; with saloon and state-rooms capable of accommodating from 12 to 16 passengers; two water tanks, one fore the other ast in the entrance and run; iron cook-house; iron gig boat, with air chambers sufficient to keep the boat and eight men afloat, in the event of being swamped; two compasses, neutralized upon Professor Airey's principles; and, in short, no expense is spared to render the vessel complete in all respects.
The "glass” was lower, Jan. 13th, according to observations made in Newcastle, than it has been for tbirty years past.-Correspondent.
Making a real deficiency in the revenue of the quarter of.... £1,110,360 But there is deducted besides, of Imprest,
£80,919 And Repayment of Advauces,
89,388 There is bere enough to awaken reflection in the most inconsiderate. A deficiency in a single quarter's revenue of between eleven and twelve hundred thousand pounds, indicates a downward progress of the people, which calls for the most serious attention of every interest throughout the country.
Calculating by the last quarter, the falling off in the Excise alone is little short of three millions a year. We put it to the national creditor, whether, if this state of things continue, he can entertain a ra. tional bope that the sources from which he derives bis interest will
GATESHEAD UNION. Ta BOARD MEETING, held this day, it was conduct of William Rowntree, the Clerk of the Union, and of John Pattison, the Relieving Officer for the Gateshead District, in supporting the authority of the Superintendent of Pauper Labour, and in causing William Miller to be taken before the Magistrates—who convicted him of using threatening language to the Superintendent, and ordered him to find sureties to keep the peace, and in default to be committed to Durham Gaol; and that this resolution be advertised in the Gateshead Observer."
Board Room, Dec. 27, 1842.
GATESHEAD BOROUGH QUESTION.
the CASE submitted to him in 1836, by the Town Council:
QUERIES. Your opinion is requested
1. Whether, by the 6th section of the Municipal Corporations Reform Act, the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of Gateshead, are not now the Body Corporate heretofore called the Boroughholders and Freemen of Gateshead, and, consequently," the Borough holders and Preemen for the time being,"mentioned in the Act of 1814?
2. Whether the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of Gateshead, were not justified in removing from office the Stewards and Town Clerk of the ancient borough, and in requiring them to deliver up, to the new Council, all deeds, monies, goods, valuable securities, books, and papers, belonging to or concern. ing the Borough holders and Freemen? and it so, whether, with reterence to the 65th and 60th sections of the Municipal Reform Act, the order in Council, and notice given by the Mayor and Town Clerk, are such preliminary measures as can be proceeded
3. Whether, under the 92d section of that Act, the new Council are entitled to receive the rents and profits of the Windmill Hills, and the houses and mill purchased since 1814, and conveyed as hereinbefore mentioned ?
4. With reference to the 2d section of the Municipal Corporations Reform Act, which, alter reciting that,“ in divers cities, &c., the common lands and public stock of such cities, &c., and the rents and profits thereof, have been held and applied for the particular benefit of the citizens, freemen, and burgesses of the said cities, &c., respectively, or of certain of them, and have not been applied to public purposes, it is enacted, that every person who now is, or hereafter may be an inhabitant* of any borough, and every person who has been, or may be, admitted a freeman or burgess of any borough, it this Act had not passed, &c., shall have and enjoy, and be entitled to acquire and enjoy, the same share and benefit of the lands, tepements, and heredi. taments, and of the rents and profits thereof, and of the common lands and public stock of any borough or body corporate, and of any lands, tenements, and hereditaments, and every sum or sums of money, chattels, securities for money, or other personal estate, of which any person, or any body corporate, may be seised or possessed, in whole or in part, for any charitable uses or trusts, as fully and effectually, and in such time and such manner, as he or she, by any statute, charter, bye-law, or custom, in force at the time of passing this Act, might, or could have, bad, acquired, or enjoyed in case this Act had not been passed provided always, that the total amount to be divided amongst the persons whose rights are herein reserved in this behalf, shall not exceed the surplus which sball remain after payment of the interest of all lawful debts, chargeable upon the real and personal estate out of which the sums so to be divided bave arisen, together with the salaries of municipal officers and all other lawful expenses, which, on the 5th day of June, were defrayed out of or chargeable upon the same,"—whether the Borough holders and Freemen are entitled to retain the property in dispute, or to receive from the new Council any proportion of its proceeds? or whether the reservation in the inclosure Act of 1814 does not refer to other persons and rights than individual appropriation ?
And, generally, what, under the circumstances, will be the
* Many of the Boroughbolders are not inbabitants of the borough, and, under the new law, are not burgesses.
most advisable measures for the Council to pursue, relative to
2. I am of opinion that the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of Gateshead, are justified in removing the Town Clerk and Stewards of the ancient borough, and in requiring them to deliver up the papers and effects which they held in right of such offices; because I think that, even supposing it were clear that the Boroughholders and Freemen bave personal rights secured by the 2d section of the late Act, still that the officers who administer the funds must be subject to the control of the new Corporation. It can scarcely be contended that there is any other body corporate who can appoint or dismiss them, or who can hold lands in Gateshead; and, therefore, in any view of the greater question, I think the Council have the authority of dismissal. I also think that it such power exists, it has been legally exercised by the course adopted.
3. I am of opinion that the Council are empowered to receive the rents and profits of the Windmill Hills, and the houses and mill purchased since 1814; but the inclination of my opinion is, that they are not entitled to apply them, pursuant to the 92d section of the Act, as public property and to public purposes.
4. For reasons already suggested, I think the Freemen and Boroughbolders are entitled to receive the proceeds of the estates now vested in the Council, but for their benefit. If I am right in the view I take of the general result of the evidence, the application of portions of the proceeds to public uses was voluntary or permissive on their part, and not in pursuance of the original grants of the property. If I am wrong, or further evidence shall vary the case, the whole will form part of the borough-stock, to be administered by the Council for general purposes. I observe nothing in the evidence which can mark
as the witness. If he had spoken plain Saxon, he would have been understood.
Hints to Gas COMPANIES.–At Sheffield, the charge is 4s. 2d. per 1,000 feet; Leeds, 6s. 8d.; Liverpool, 6s.; Chel. tenham, Glasgow, and Bradford, 7s.; Paisley, Newcastle, and Sunderland, 7s.6d. The high charge made on the Tyne and the Wear, we need hardly remark, arises from the dearness of coal on the banks of those two rivers !!! The effect which lowering the price of an article like gas has upon its consumption, was, perhaps, never better exemplified than in the statistics of Manchester. In 1833, when the charge was 10s. 6d. per 1,000 feet, the profits were £8,292; in 1834, it was 10s. 3d., and the profits £10,191 ; in 1835, 10s., profits £13,510; in 1836, 9s., profits £16,196; and in 1837, 8s. 6d., profits £18,712. In 1838 it was further lowered to 8s., and the profits realized £19,376: in 1839, the price was 7s. 6d., the profits £24,658. The last reduction in 1840 was to 7s., and the profits increased to £24,738 ; in 1841, to £29,694; and in 1842, to £34,232. These tacts speak for themselves.
The ARCHBISHOP OF York.-The present Most Rererend Prelate, Edward Harcourt, has filled the episcopal office longer than any of bis English prodecessors. Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1486, lived bl years after his first consecration, and 32 years after his election to the archiepiscopal see. This long enjoyment of the episcopal dignity was unsurpassed, until the time of Edward Harcourt, who was consecrated in 1791, and became Archbishop of York ip 1807; consequently, was 52 years ago a Bishop, and has been 36 years an Archbishop!
HODGE's Hint. The great man of the village, being at dinner, allowed one of bis tenants to stand while he conversed with him. “Wbat news, my friend ?" said the squire. “None that I know of," replied the farmer, "except that a sow of mine has bad a litter of thirteen pigs, and she has only twelve teats. “What will the thirteenth do?" asked the landlord. “Do as I do," returned Hodge : "it will stand and look on while the others eat"
CAUTION TO COACHMEN.-An Irish gentleman, travelling by the mail, was disturbed in a nap by the coachman (on the relinquishment of the reins to another driver), to solicit a compliment. was no easy matter to make Pat understand the coachman's object. At length, however, he drew sixpence from bis pocket, and banded it over with many imprecations for the interruption, and added, " Il you bad not waked me, fellow, I'd have given you a shilling."
CURIOUS FACT IN NATURAL HISTORY.-Several instances are on record where the domestic hen bas, in old age, put on the plumage of a cock, had spars, crowed, &c. We are informed by a gentleman, whose observations we can rely upon, of a peaben which bas, at the present time, put on the plumage of the peacock.--Garner's Natural History of the Coanty of Stafford. Lots of BAIRNS AT EYEMOUTA.-If the man be happy whose
quiver is liberally filled," the ladies at Eyemouth must have qualified their liege lords to talk boldly with "the enemy in the gate." I never saw sucb swarms of children as the door of every domicile presented. They were crawling in and out of boats, or creeping on the quay or jetty, and, as I foolishly imagined, in momentary risk of drowning. "Do children frequently drop in ?" I inquired, in a paroxysm of alarm, of the jolly hostess. Aye, aye, the fule things, they often fa' ower yon pier," she answered, coolly. “God bless me!-Lost of course ?" “Na, na," returned the landlady: "poo an tben, to be sore, a bairn's drooned; but there's maistly some idle body in the way to fish them oot, the deevils !". Though the worthy hostess spoke so ooolly on the subject, I thought it rather a risk, to allow tw year olds to tumble into twenty.feet water, depending on there being “maistly some idle body in the way to fish them out."- Maxwell's Wanderings.
out an intermediate line-defining part of the proceeds to belong to the public, and part to individuals.
5. On the whole, I think the Council of Gateshead are bound to seek, by the best and safest means, a judicial determination upon their rigbts and their duties. The case is not one in which, in my opinjon, they can properly resort to the summary process, given by the late statute, whereby Magistrates may compel displaced officers to surrender books and property at the instance of the Council; but that the proper course will be, after a formal demand, to proceed, either by motion for a mandamus to compel the delivery of the papers, or by action at the suit of the present Corporation, to recover them, and any monies withheld by the displaced officers. In that action the beneficial interests of the Boroughbolders and Freemen may not necessarily be decided; but I do not see any other course than these two which the Council can adopt; and if they adopt the latter, they should propose to try the question in the tairest and cheapest manner, by the admission of documents, and endeavour so to shape the admissions as to lead to an adjudication upon all the points affecting their powers, and the rights of the individuals who dispute them. Temple, Feb. 25, 1836.
T. N. TALFOURD. State of EDUCATION IN THE Diocese OF EXETER.-An inquest (says the Patriot) was beld in the neighbourhood of Exmoor, Devon, at which nine of the jury signed the verdict by mark. The following are some of the humorous particulars of the examination :
Coroner: Did you know the defunot?
Witness : Yes; he was very drunk and I were very drunk'; and that
Witness : No; only his face was swelled so as his own mother would not have knowed bim.
Coroner: Then how did you know him ?
Coroner: That will do, Sir. (To the jury): Gentlemen, you have heard the evidence, and will consider of your verdict.
Foreman : Your worsbip, we are all of ono mind.
Foreman: We don't mind what: we are agreeablo to anything your worship pleases.
Coroner: No, gentlemen; I have no right to dictate ; you had better consult together.
Foreman : We have, your worship, afore we came, and we're all unanimous.
Coroner: I am happy to hear it, gentlemen. (To the clerk): Mr. Hisks, take down the verdict.-Now, then, gentlemen ?
Foreman: Why, then, your worship, it's “Justidable Suicide ?" and begs to recommend to meroy; and hopes we shall be allowed our expenses ! The Coroner, with his pedantic Latinisms, was about as stupid
Or are you but in jest?
Decide on wbat is best?
You beaux but only play;
You cool, and turn away.
Give me po whisperd sigb:
But honest love is sby.
Bat fear to tell you so,
Is all your heart should know. * This song, dedicated by Mr. J. L. CLENNELL to Sir John FIFE, has been set to music by Miss CLENNELL; who dedicates her composition " to Tuomas MOORE, Esq., the poet of all circles, the delighi of his own."
ham), Mr. J. and the Misses Cookson, Dr. and Mrs. Headlam,
A SACRED SONG, SUGGESTED BY THE ANTI CORN-LAW SOIREE
IN NEWCASTLE UPON.TYNE, " And God said, Bebold, I bare given you every herb benring seed which is upon the face of all the Farth, and every iree, in which is th fruit of a tree yielding seed: to you it shall ie for meat."- Genesis, i. 29
" While the Earth reinaiveth, seed-time and harvest. and cold and beat, and summer and winter, and Jay and night, shall not cease.' Genesis, riii. 22.
ALI. BOUNTFOUS LORD! thy teeming Earth
From shore to shore, from sea to sea!
The Gateshead Fell Ball took place on Thursday,
The Mayor of Newcastle (T. Dunn, Esq.), and Mrs.
“THE REPORT OF THE SOUTu SHIELDS COMMITTEE, APPOINTED TO INVESTIGATE THE CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS in Coal Mines, containing an Examination of Safety Lamps, Ventilation, Scientific Instruments, Infant Labour in the Mines, Plans and Sections, Scientific Education of Officers of Mines, Government Inspection, and Medical Treatment aster Explosion; with Plans and Appendix.-London: LONGMAN & Co.Gateshead : Douglas, Observer Office."
The South Shields Committee-consisting of Robert Ingham, Esq., President, Dr. Winterbottom, and R. Shortridge, J. W. Roxbs, John Clay, Errington Bell, R. W. Swinburne, W. K. Eddones, and Anthony Harrison, Esqrs., with James Mather and Thomas Salmon, Exqrs., the Honorary Secretaries-ap. poin:ed in 1839, alter a dreadful loss of life in the St. Hilda pit (" one of those devastating explosions that place a whole district in mourning"), to investigate the causes of accidents in coal. mines—bare completed and published a Report, which may be truly described as a monument of ability and perseverance-and of humanity, too, which breathes in its every page.
Within the last twenty years, it appears, upwards of 680 per. sons have lost their lives by explosions and their consequences, in coal mines on the Tyne and Wear alone. So fearful a mor. tality is of itsell' suflicient 10 aslix the stamp of popular grati. tulle on the Committee's exertions ; yet it is not ihus only that the value of the Report is exhibited. To Great Britaiv, it is truly stated, the coal-mines are of “more consequence than mines of gold and silver-they set her stupendous machinery in motion, raise her to a position the big best in the scale of nations, and bring her vast dependent territories, scattered over the globe, with all their valuable productions, within the easy access and jurisdiction of the parent state." To secure so vast a source of wealth from wastelul as well as dangerous systems of exploration, and the operatives engaged in it from sickness and death, are, consequently, matters of the first moment to a commercial community. 'I hese, the Conimittee have bad seriously in view, and, in our opinion, they have successfully pointed out a road on which both life and capital may henceforth travel much more securely than betore.
The great objects of inquiry and consideration with the Com. mittee have been :-Salety.lamps, ventilation, scientific instru. ments, infant labour in the mines, plans and sections, scientific education of officers of mines, government inspection, and medical treatment after explosion. The whole of these matters are dwelt upon at considerable length, and the “conclusions" of the Committee thereon expressed with remarkable clearness and impartiality.
The safety-lamps hitherto in use-even the very best of them-are considered by the Committee as only comparatively safe instruments: the“ Davy," indeed, without a complete shield of glass or other material, is pronounced, and upon suffi. cient evidence, to be “ most dangerous," and to have been“ productive of those accidents in mines against which it is too con. fidently and generally employed, at the daily imminent risk of producing such calamity." The various lamps of Dr. Clanny (who, in this country, says the Report, appears to have been ihe first man of science that conceived it possible to enter into a contest with the destructive element, and who, sustained by his unwearied philanthropy, has never ceased, for thirty years, to devote his talents and exertions to mitigate the horrors consequent upon its explosions)-of Sir H. Dary, of Mr. George Siephenson, of Mr. Henry Smith's improvement of Mr. Stephenson's, of Upton & Roberts, of Mr. William Martin, of Mr
Richard Ayre, and of M. Mueseler and M. Lemielle of Belgium, are severally considered, and their merits and delects pointed out, with great candour and fairness; and the Commitee express their opinion that the best description of lamp to be em. ployed in fiery mines, is one on the principle of the Improved Cladny and the Mueseler Lamps-the latier with a continuous gauze cylinder-a lamp in which the supply of air is derived entirely through the upper part of the construction over the glass shield;" but even this, as before stated, is not to be re. garded as absolutely sale.
The Committee, however, justly regard lamps as only secondary considerations-and report, we fear with much correct. ness, that the “far more imporiant and safer system of venti. lation has been comparatively neglected" in ihe working of coal mines. An indicator of danger (lor a safety-lamp, alter all, is only so lar valuable,) has been, thus, preferred, “ either from erroneous conviction, or other less defensible cause," to the removal of the danger itself, througb processes of ventilation. The Codimittee refer to the unwise and salal notions that bare hitherto existed on this subject, and point out the course wbich should be adopted, for the common benefit of the miner and the mine.owner. They mention the astounding fact, that in some extensive mines, abounding most largely in explosive gas, the rate of the ventilating air.current is recluced so low as one and one tenth of a foot, one foot, and even 66 of a foot per second ! in consequence of the limited proportion of pit and shall area to the enormous extent of excavations, “ sometimes extending beyond seventy miles, where nearly 403 a res are supplied with atmospheric air by a single pit.” This is a horrible fact, and induces us to ask the coal.irade if the possibility bas never occurred to them of a verdict of “manslaughter" being relurned in cases of death ensuing from so shocking a neglect of duty to the pirmen. And the existence of such a syulem evidences lolly as well as inbuinanity; for it has been clearly shown, that in well-ventilated coilieries, not only do the men respire more freely, but the road ways are kepi dry and repaired at less ex. pense, and the timber lasts longer by several years.
As this appears to us one of the most important parts of the Report, we leel it would be wrong to abridge the conclusions to which the Committee come, on the subject of ventilation. They find:-
That the imperfect state of the ventilation in the northern mines is caused by too few shalts in proportiou to the rxtent of underground workings; that the cost of sinking those shalts has been unutuly exaggerated; and that the saving of expense from destruction of brattices, waste of ropes, injury from explosion, &c., eventually compensales for tbe increased tirsi oullay on the necessary additional shafts.
That only increased velocity, and diminished length of air currents, can secure against the recurreuce of explosions : thal, for this purpose, one sbart ouubt to be upportioned to alibe most 40 acres, which is mucb more than the proportion in the metallic mices of Cornwall, or in the coal mines of Staffordsbire-often more than in those of Lancashire, aud sometimes in those of the northern coal.frld ; and that no “winning" or extraction of coa! in a new mive shall be allowed to be made, unless two distinct and separate shafts have been previously put down, which should be secured by act of parliament.
That for facilitating the easy passage of air without obstruction, the areas of the upeast shafts should invariably equal, if not exceed, the areas of the downcast, instead of bearing, as they now do, in muny instances, a proportion of 2 lo l. This is clearly evident when it is cousia dered that ihe beated products or the air, after combustion, as nitrogen, carbonic acid, &c., in ascending the upcast, are expanded wearly one seveuth, by the increased tenperature of the furnace, from the line of their descent through lbe downcast and passage in the works.
Thul the plan and mode of ventilation by high pressure sleam, recom. mended by Mr. Goldswortby Gurney, the distinguished inventor of the Bude Light, as developed in his communications to the Committee, fully detailed in tbe Report, seem peculiarly adapted for accomplisbing, at small expense, and without derangement to the present system of working, a vast increased and manageable rate of current. That this power, althougb manageable, is almost illiioitable, and can be applied to sweep the galleries with the almost irresistible force of a hurricane, guided only by the galety of the works when the men may be absent from the pit, rendering it, before their discent, pure, healthy, and safe.
That considering its power, safety and economy, facility of execution and command, ventilation by bigb-pressure steam is peculiarly fitted for the present condition of mines, and adapted for them in every stage of their operations. That it appears one of the most important and valuable suggestions, and, if fully and properly applied, preferable, as lur as relates to its effects on the safety and bealthiness of the mine, to any in. vention of modern times.
That in addition to these improvements in ventilation, the plan of exbausting the gas by drists driven along the face of dykes, which are found to dam back and accumulate the gas in great abundance, and perbaps aid in creating it, and which has flowed up ibrougb the natural divisions of the coul, backs,slines, or cleavages, is deserving of extensive
application. That the support which the natural position and dip of coal seams, their structure and their interruption by faults or dykes, give to the suggestion of draining by gas drifts scientifically applied, borne out by extensive practical demonstration of its great utility in Warwicksbire and Staffordsbire, and partially in some instances in the Northumberland and Durham districts, leaves no doubt of the important advantages derivable from them, and which are the more valuable as no interruption of the slightest kind to the present mode of operating in mines, and but small increased expense will arise from their introduc. tion; and thus there exists no real obstruction to their general and immediate adoption.
The necessity of adopting in mines the use of scientific in. struments, by which the temperature and pressure of the at. mosphere are most accurately indicated, is also pointed out with much truth and judgment; as is also the propriety of a regis. tration of plans and sections (as in some foreign countries at present), by which the dangers of inundation, from breaking into old and unknown workings, would be materially (if not wholly) avoided.
The importance of scientific officers as well as instruments in mines, is also very properly urged; and a compulsory system of government inspection of such officers is defended, as "perfectly compatible with the private rigbis ol property and the freedom of trade :" being a principle of interference which has " already been acknowledged and acted upon by the Legislature with regard to railways, the professions, the manufacturers, and some of the trades, and is peculiarly applicable tu miningunlike the former, far removed from an enlightened public in. vestigation. These remarks have our hearty concurrenceas such of our readers must suppose, who are acquainted with our opinion on the principle of Capt. Fitzroy's Bill.
The remaining portions of the Report apply to the medical treatment of persons injured by explosion, on which much valuable information is given; and we cannot more appropriately conclude our notice of the Report (u bich we wish our other claims would have allowed us to make longer), than by congratulating the borough of South Shields on ihe noble and chivalric spirit which has animated their Committee on the subject of infant labour in mines—the more especially as their Report on that head was written previous to the introduction of Lord Ashley's Bill. " A great source of danger in mines," says the Report, “in addition to the inhumanity of the practice, is the ecoployment of boys of a very early age-frequently under. 10 years; whence have arisen explosions and accidents of a serious nature." Sereral of those accidents are quoted-and the Committee would prevent boys younger than 11 or 12 from being employed in coal mines. In France, Belgium, and Italy, to the straine of England, it seems a law to this effect has existed since the days of Napoleon. We congratulate the Committee, therefore, as well as their townsmen, on the adoplion by the Legislature of at least this important section of the recommendation of the Report.
We not only hope, but believe, that the labours of the Committee will inake some noise in the world, far beyond the dis. trict in which they have been so zealously pursued and so honourably concluded.
[We have observed, in a review of the Report in the Northern Advertiser of Thursday, that the writer does not fully understand the relative number of accidents in the Belgian mines, compared with those of the Northumberland and Durham district. It is accounted for in this way. The list of the Sbields Committee is made by "individual research,” by Sykes and themselves, in which only the most prominent description of cases, as explosions, erer reaches them, or can even with much trouble be ascertained. The Belgic list is an official registration from the Minister of the Interior, in which every accident, without exception, is registered. It is, we are sorry to say, not a freedom from a proportionate number of similar fatal occurrences in our mines, but from the want of their full official registry, that causes the discrepaney. As a proof, we reler 10 pares 148 and 149 of the “ First Report of the Commissioners on the Employment of Children in Mines, &c.," in which it is stated, on this very subject, “ The Sub.Commissioner has incidentally supplied us with remarkable evidence of the fact, that very few of the fatal accidents which take place in collieries cuine to the knowledge of the public; and that there is not only no public record, but that not the slightest notice is taken of them, even by the press."
The deaths according to this list, in the year 1838, were 13; while in the same year, according to the Registrar's books, the Commissioners' Report state, the