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nor vìrtue, nor knowledge, has any vigor, or immortal hòpe, except in the principles of the Christian faith, and

in the sanctions of the Christian religion.

4. The faded fòwers, the discolored leaf, the dilapidated tènement, the worn-out implements of hùsbandry, whatever shows marks of decáy, should awaken in us thoughts of our own mortality.

5. Lò, earth receives Him from the bending skies !

Sink down, ye móantains, and ye válleys, rise!
With heads declined, ye cédars, homage pày;

Be smooth, ye rocks, ye rapid flúods, give way! 6. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life; nor ángels, nor principálities, nor powers; nor things présent, nor things to come; nor hight, nor depth; nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lòrd.

7. Charity suffereth lúng, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vàunteth not itself; is not pùffed up; doth not behave itself unsèemly; seeketh not her own; not easily províked; thinketh no evil.

QUESTIONS.—1. What are inflections? 2. How should they be made in reading ? 3. Under what four heads are these modifications of the voice classed? 4. By what mark is each denoted? 5. What is the monotone ? 6. Repeat the example. 7. What is said of a monotonous mode of reading? *8. Is the monotone a perfect sameness of sound? 9. In what instances is it mainly employed? 10. What is the rising inflection ? 11. What is the falling ? *12. Should the voice in the rising or falling inflections, sink below the general pitch? 13. Illustrate the two inflections and the cadence by a diagram. 14. What is said of degrees of inflection? 15. By what terms are they distinguished ? 16. What is the circumflex ? 17. What is said of the difficulty of discerning the difference between the rising and falling inflections? 18. What direction is given to determine which is used in any instance ?


INFLECTIONS.--Rules for their use.


Direct questions, or those which may be answered by yes or no, usually take the rising inflection, but their answers, generally, the falling

EXAMPLES. 1. Is he at home? He is. (or yès.) 2. Did he do ríght? He did not. (or no.) 3. Are you going to New York? I am going to Albàny. 4. Will you go with mé ? I will. 5. King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets ? I know that thou


Note I.—The direct question, when made as an appeal, and the reply anticipated, takes the falling inflection.

1. Is he not a hèro?
2. Did I do it?
3. Is not that a beautiful flower?
4. Looks it not like the king?

5. Those are beautiful paintings. Are they not? In this last example, an appeal is made to others for an assent to the assertion previously made, and the affirmative reply anticipated. Generally, in cases of this kind, some previous assertion is either expressed, or implied.

Note II.-Exclamations becoming questions, require the rising inflection.

1. Banished from Róme! what's banished, but set free

From daily contact of the things I lothe?
" Tried and convicted tráitor !'-Who says this ?
Who'll prove it, at his peril on my head ?


· Indirect questions, or those which can not be answered by yes or no, usually take the falling inflection, and their answers the same.

1. Where are you going? To Boston.
2. How do you do? I am wěll.
3. When will he arrive? To-mòrrow.

4. Which do you prefer? The latter. Note I.-Indirect questions sometimes take the rising in. flection, as when one asks a repetition of what, at first, was not understood.

EXAMPLES. 1. Where do you resìde? In Uticà.

Where did you say ? In Utica. 2. This book is worth five dollars. How much? Five dòllars.

Note II.-Answers to questions, whether direct or indi. rect, when expressive of indifference, instead of the falling, take the rising inflection, or the circumflex.

EXAMPLES. 1. Do you love stúdy? I dó. 2. Did you regret his departure? Not much. 3. Have you read my key to the Rómans? I have turned it over.

Remark 1.-Inflections often have the influence of varying the sense of passages. For example, note the following:

Will you go to-day or to-morrow? Yès.

Will you go to-day or to-mòrrow? I shall go to-mòrrow. The former question asks whether he will go within the two days, and may be answered by yes or no; but the latter, on which day he will go, and can not be thus answered.


Antithetic* terms or clauses usually take opposite inflections; generally, the former has the rising, and the latter the falling inflection.


1. By hónor, and dishonor; by évil report, and good report; as de

céivers, and yet trùe. 2. Homer was the greater génius; Virgil, the better artist: in the one,

we admire the mán; in the other, the work. 3. They have mouths—but they speak not:

Eyés have they—but they sèe not:
They have éars—but they hèar not:
Nóses have they—but they smèll not:
They have hands—but they hàndle not:

Féet have they—but they walk not.
4. To bé, or not to bè, that is the question.

Note I.—When one of the antithetic clauses is a negative, and the other an affirmative, generally the negative has the rising, and the affirmative the falling inflection.


1. He was esteemed, not for wealth, but for wisdom.
2. You should show your courage by deeds, not by words
3. I said an elder soldier, not a bétter.
4. He is not going to Páris, buť to Lòndon.

* Antithetic terms are those which are opposed to each other in sense, as in a comparison or contrast. Thus, This one is great, but the other is omall.

Remark 1.—In this particular, the negative clause may be in position, either before or after the affirmative. The same also may be said in regard to such comparisons as are connected by than, in which case, generally, the clause imme. diately following it, is read with the rising, and the other with the falling inflection. Thus,

1. It is easier to be wise for others, than for ourselves.
2. It is better to be poor, than ignorant.
3. We think less of the injuries we do, than of those we súffer.
4. It is wiser to prevent a quarrel beforehand, than to revenge it


Remark 2.-It may sometimes be difficult to determine the antithetic terms. When both are expressed, much less difficulty will be presented, than in instances where one is omitted, and is to be suggested by the inflection of voice on the other. In this case, the most efficient means of determining which, will be found in a knowledge of the previous connection.

Note II.-—The rising inflection, in many instances of antithetic relation, as well as in many


borders closely on the circumflex, and in fact by many it is used with propriety instead of the rising slide. Thus, Dr. Porter has frequently marked in his Analysis, the same example both ways, sometimes with the rising inflection, and at others with the circumflex. This variation arises principally from the taste of different readers.

QUESTIONS.-1. Repeat Rule I. 2. When does the direct question take the falling inflection?" 3. In such cases what is previously expressed or implied? 4. When do exclamations take the rising inflection ? 5. Repeat Rule II. 6. In what instances do indirect questions take the rising inflection? 7. When do answers to questions take the rising infection? 8. Give an example. 9. What influence do inflections often have on the sense of a passage? 10. Give an example. 11. Repeat Rule III. 12. What is meant by antithetic terms? 13. When one of the antithetic clauses is a negative, and the other an affirmative, what inflections do they take? 14. What is said of their position in a sentence with regard to each other? 15. What, of such comparisons as are connected by than ? 16. When one of the antithetic terms are omitted, by what means can it be ascertained ? 17. What is said in regard to the rising inflection and circumflex?



The pause of suspension, denoting that the sense is incomplete, usually has the rising inflection.

EXAMPLES. 1. Whérefore, if God so clothe the grass of the fiéld, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the óven, shall he not much more clothe you, o ye of little fáith?

2. Bright as the pillar rose at Heaven's command,

When Israel marched along the desert lánd,
Blazed through the night on lonely wilds afár,
And told the path, ,-a never-setting stár:
So, heavenly Génius, in thy course divíne,

Hòpe is thy star,-her light is ever thine.
3. If I have made gold my hópe,

Or have said to fine gold, Thou art my confidence;
If I have rejoiced because my wealth was great,
And because mine hand had gotten múch ;
If I beheld the sun when it shined,
Or the moon walking in brightness;
And my heart hath been secretly entíced,
Or my mouth hath kissed my hånd;
This also were an iniquity to be punished by the jùdge:

For I should have denied the God that is above. Note I.—The ordinary direct address, not accompanied with strong emphasis, takes the rising inflection, on the principle of the pause of suspension.

EXAMPLES. 1. Símon, son of Jónas, lovest thou mé ? 2. Mén, brethren, and fathers, hear ye my defense which I make now

unto you.

3 Ye glittering towns, with wealth and splendor crówn'd;

Ye fields, when summer spreads profusion round;
Ye lákes, whose vessels catch the busy gále;
Ye bending swáins, that dress the flowery vále;
For me your tributary stores combine;

Creation's heir, the world, the world is mine! Note II.—The pause of suspension, if accompanied with strong emphasis, must sometimes have the intense falling in. flection, in order to secure the true meaning of the passage, Thus,

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