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P. No, she did not tell us the causes, but the matters of fact.
T. Perhaps you understand yourself the causes, why the Romans finally retrieved their affairs ?
P. To be sure I do ; the cause was their bravery.
T. But were they not brave also at the beginning of those wars ?
P. Certainly they were.
T. Then their bravery was the cause of their being con. quered, and being conquerors ?
P. Why_why_I don't know as to that; but I know I never was asked such hard questions before. T. Well, well; I will ask you something easier.
Is it to be supposed that the Romans would have come off victorious in that war, if the powerful sovereigns of that age, had united their forces with the Carthaginians?
P. [With an air of surprise.] What sovereigns do you mean ?
T. Why, do you not know, that in that age there were in Macedonia, Asia, Syria, and Egypt, all those powerful kings who were the successors of Alexander the Great ?
P. Oh, yes, I know that; but we used to take up their history in another chapter. I never thought of their living at the time of the second Punic war.
T. Do you not perceive, then, that their mutual rivalry was the cause why they did not unite their forces with the Carthaginians to oppose the Romans, in consequence of which those same kings were afterwards conquered, one by one, by the Romans ?
P. I perceive it now, since you have told me of it; and I derive much gratification from your remark.
T. You see, by this time, my friend, what sort of a found ation you have in the history that you have learned. You imagined that you understood “all history ;" you now see how many deductions must be made from your knowledge. You have heard nothing of the historians themselves; nothing of the philosophers and poets; nothing of magistrates and other officers, and, as I perceive, nothing of various other things relating to peace and war, times and places ; nothing of causes ; and, in short, nothing respecting the manner of discerning truth from falsehood : now, when all these things are taken away from your stock of “all history," what is there remaining ?
P. I now begin to understand, and I am sorry for the labor I have spent in my history,
T. No, take courage ; for now you may promise yourself that
you will know something, because you are sensible how much there is that you do not know; and that you are in need of something more substantial and efficacious, which shall qualify you for a more perfect knowledge of things and causes ; enable you to judge of truth and falsehood; and, in short, make you acquainted with the history of history itself; that is, that you may know what writers have treated of the subjects of history, and of what credit and authority those writers are.
QUESTIONS.—1. How did the pupil define 'all history?' 2. Was she acquainted with the names of the historians, poets, &c. ? 3. What did she know of Rome? 4. What of Sylla? 5. Did she know what tyrant, dictator, &c. meant? 6. What did she say of Carthage? 7. Were the Romans always victorious ? 8. What is said of the causes of these defeats ? 9. What do you understand by the second Punic war? 10. What great nations existed at the time of these wars? 11. Had the pupil learned this ? 12. What did the teacher say must be taken away from her knowledge of all history'? 13. What did he advise her?
What is designated by a dash at the end of one's remarks? Why does the third question in the lesson take the rising inflection ? (Rule II. Noie I.) What Rule for the two inflections on things and men?
SPELL AND DEFINE-1. Tranquility, a calm state. 2. In gre' di ent, one of the parts of a compound. 3. Assaults', violent attacks. 4. Mariner, a seaman. 5. Ad'verse, opposing; contrary to. 6. Hospitable, friendly to strangers. 7. Malice, ill-will. 8. Traversing, wandering over. 9. Distract', to divide; to vex. 10. Defame, to slander. 11. Ruth'less, cruel; barbarous.
The Grave- --a Place of Rest.—MACKENZIE. 1. The grave is a place where the weary are at rest. How soothing is this sentiment, “ The weary are at rest!' There is something in the expression, which affects the heart with uncommon sensations, and produces a species of delight, where tranquility is the principal ingredient. The senti. ment itself is extensive, and implies many particulars : it implies, not only that we are delivered from the troubling of the wicked, as in the former clause, but from every trouble, and every paix, to which life is subject.
2. Those, only, who have themselves been tried in afflic. Lion, can feel the full force of this expression. Others may be pleased with the sentiment, and affected by sympathy. The distressed are, at once, pleased and comforted. To be delivered from trouble-to be relieved from power—to see oppression humbled—to be freed from care and pain, from sickness and distress--to lie down, as in a bed of security, in a long oblivion of our woes—to sleep in peace, without the fear of interruption-how pleasing is the prospect !-how full of consolation !
3. The ocean may roll its waves, the warring winds may join their forces, the thunders may shake the skies, and the lightnings pass swiftly from cloud to cloud ; but not the forces of the elements, combined, not the sounds of thunders, nor of many seas, though they were united into one peal, and directed to one point, can shake the security of the tomb.
4. The dead hear nothing of the tumult; they sleep soundly; they rest from their calamities upon beds of peace. Conducted to silent mansions, they can not be troubled by the rudest assaults, nor awakened by the loudest clamor. The unfortunate, the oppressed, the broken-hearted, with those that have languished on beds of sickness, rest here together : they have forgotten their distresses; every sorrow is hushed, and every pang extinguished.
5. The grave is called the harbor of rest, in whose deep bosom the disastered mariner, who had long sustained the assaults of adverse storms, moors his wearied vessel, never more to return to the tossings of the wasteful ocean. It is called the land of peace, whither the friendless exile retires, beyond the reach of malice and injustice, and the cruelest arrows of fortune. It is called the hospitable house, where the weather-beaten traveler, faint with traversing pathless deserts, finds a welcome and secure repose.
6. There no cares molest, no passions distract, no enemies defame; there agonizing pain, and wounding infamy, and ruthless revenge, are no more; but profound peace, and calm passions, and security which is immovable. There the wicked cease from troubling ; there the weary are at rest! There the prisoners rest together! they hear not the voice of the oppressor! The small and the great are there, and the servant is free from his master!'
Questions.—1. What is said of the expression, 'the weary are at rest ?' 2. Who alone can feel the force of this expression ? 3. What can not shake the security of the tomb? 4. What is said of the dead? 5. By what different names is the grave called? 6. From what evils is it free?
What inflection prevails in the latter part of the second verse? What in the latter part of the fifth verse ? At which period in the first verse should the longest pause be made ? (Les. XI. 6.)
SPELL AND DEFINE-1. Ghosts, disembodied spirits; visions. 2. Infamy, disgrace; a loss of reputation. 3. Pros'trate, lying down in the attitude of a suppliant. 4. Origin, source from which any thing springs. 5. Meteor, a light, fiery, luminous substance, floating in the sky. 6. Do plore, to lament. '7. Repine', to fret one's self; to be discontented.
A rest for weary pilgrims found;
Low in the ground.
No more disturbs their deep repose,
That shuts the rose.
And aching heart beneath the soil -
And cast me helpless on the wild ;
Take home thy child.
My pulse—my brain runs wild ;--I rave;
“ I am THE GRAVE!"
Hath found at length a tongue to chide :
Be silent, Pride!
7. “ Art thou a wretch of hope forlorn,
The victim of consuming care ?
By fell despair ?
8. « Do foul misdeeds of former times,
Wring with remorse thy guilty breast ?
Murder thy rest ?
9. “Lashed by the furies of the mind,
From wrath and vengeance wouldst thou flee?
A friend in me.
10. “I charge thee live! repent and pray;
In dust thine infamy deplore :
And sin no more.
11. “ Art thou a mourner ? Hast thou known
The joy of innocent delights,
And tranquil nights? 12. “O live and deeply cherish still
The sweet remembrance of the past,
For peace at last.
O’erwhelming tempest drown thy bark ?
Misfortune's mark ?
14. “ Though long of winds and waves the spori,
Condemned in wretchedness to roam,
A quiet home.
And was thy friend a deadly foe,
A surer blow ?