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WITH the issue of this number of the INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER the Twelfth Volume of that Work is completed. We advisedly say Work, because it was our intention from the beginning not to produce an ephemeral serial, but a publication of permanent value, consisting of articles on a variety of topics of enduring interest, bringing to a focus many scattered rays of knowledge, and offering to the educated classes, wherever the English language is read or spoken, a record of research and discovery in various departments of human inquiry, which we hoped would not be found unworthy of their enlightened support.

From our first issue to the present time, the public have appreciated our labours, and awarded to the INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER an amount of favour never before bestowed upon any scientific publication taking the same high ground. In addition to a sale in monthly numbers extending to many thousands, there has been a continued demand for volumes and for sets. The public have thus recognized in the INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER the character we desire to claim for it—that of a permanent WORK.

This success has necessitated the course we now beg to announce—that of bringing our labours to a definite conclusion, with a view to their immediate resumption in another form. With this number the INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER completes and closes its career, and, on the 1st of next month (February, 1868), “ THE STUDENT” will appear as the successor of the INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER, continuing the plans carried out in the former publication, with such improvements and additions as the wants of the public and our experience may suggest.

By this arrangement new subscribers will have the advantage of coming in at the beginning of a New Magazine of VOL. XII.-NO. VI.


Science, Literature, and Art, which will combine all the advantages of our previous publication, with a wider range of topics, a greater variety of illustration, and especial adaptation to the requirements of young men and women standing on the threshold of Intellectual Culture, and needing a friendly hand to guide them through its gates.

For further details of the new arrangements, we respectfully refer our readers to the Prospectuses now issued of "The STUDENT.”

Let not the name offend—the wisest are students from their earliest perceptions to their latest thoughts. Nor must it be supposed that this study and contemplation is without its recreative delight. “The Student's Bower ” is no dull abode. To peruse what others have deciphered, or to

“Read what is still unread

In the manuscripts of God :" to hear the music of “Nature, the dear old nurse," when she sings

“ To Him night and day

The rhymes of the universe;" these are the privileges of the STUDENT, and, promising that those who best interpret her language shall make its meaning familiar to our readers, whenever she

Sings a more wonderful song,

Or tells a more marvellous tale," we look with hope and confidence to the future, as we invoke a large and liberal amount of public confidence and support.



BY W. BOYD DAWKINS, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.s.* At the time man first appeared on the earth, the physical conditions obtaining in Western Europe were altogether different from those under which we now live. Britain formed part of the mainland of Europe, and low fertile plains covered with the vegetation peculiar to a moderately severe climate, stretched far away into the Atlantic from the present western coast line. The Thames also, instead of flowing into the German Ocean, joined the Elbe and the Rhine in an estuary opening on the North Sea about the latitude of Berwick, The climate also was very severe, and strongly resembled that of Siberia and North America. One would naturally expect that the animals living on that vast pleistocene continent, under such conditions of life would differ materially from those now living on what are the mere relics of that submerged land. Some of them have utterly disappeared from the face of the earth, such as the sabre-toothed lion, the cave-bear, the Irish elk, the mammoth, Elephas antiquus, the hippopotamus, and the woolly rhinoceros and the Rhinoceros Leptorhinus of Owen. Others again have departed to northern regions, such as the glutton, the reindeer, the true elk, the musk-sheep, the pouched marmot, and the lemming, while others, such as the cave-lion and cave-hyæna have retired southwards, and taken refuge, the one in Africa, the other in that continent and in Asia. The history of all these animals, and of the race of men associated with them, is, to a certain extent, familiar to most of you. The subject that I have now to bring before you relates to the animals which lived from the disappearance of the post-glacial mammals down to the times of history-a period of uncertain length, to be reckoned certainly by centuries, and probably by tens of thousands of years. The human remains found in Britain, and belonging to the stone and bronze folk, have been diligently looked after by the archæologists and craniologists, but the remains of the animals, carefully sought after in Switzerland and Denmark, have for the most part either been overlooked in this country or confounded with the animals of the preceding epoch. They have been derived from villages and tumuli of unknown antiquity, from refuse heaps and from caverns, which were at once the abodes and burial places of some early race of man.

For this group of animals, and those from alluvia and peat-bogs, I have proposed the term Pre-historic,* because they came into being at a time far beyond the ken of the historian, some of them also long after the close of the post-glacial era. Unfortunately I cannot separate those belonging

*“Sur les Mammifères Pre-historiques trouvè's avec l'homme dans Grande Bretagne," read at the Congrès Internationale d'Anthropologie et d'Archéologie Pre-historiques in Paris, 1867.

to the stone folk from those living in the bronze age in Britain. The remains found in tumuli and villages will be first considered.

In 1862 I had the opportunity of examining the remains at Stanlake,+ a small hamlet in Berkshire. They were found in and around the circular depressions and trenches which mark the site of a village probably of Keltic age. They consisted of large quantities of the bones, teeth, and skulls of animals that had been used for food, such as Bos longifrons in great abundance, the sheep or goat, the horse, red-deer, pig; and there were also the dog, cat, and martin. The metacarpal of a roe-deer had been polished, and exhibited the marks of friction by a string. Along with them were large quantities of flint flakes, rudely chipped lumps of Aint and coarse pottery and ashes. There was nothing found to stamp the absolute date of the village, but it probably may have been inhabited at the time of the Roman invasion. In the tumuli of Wiltshire the same group of animals has been met with by Dr. Thurnam, with the exception of the cat and martin. In the same county also the skull of urus has been found underneath a tumulus near Calne,t associated with remains of the deer and wild boar, and fragments of pottery ornamented with right lines. It is remarkable as the only authenticated instance of the recurrence of the animal with the remains of man in pre-historic times in Britain.

A vast number of bones have been dredged out of the Thames near Kew Bridge, along with polished stone axes and bronze swords. Their condition proves them to have belonged to animals that were eaten for food, the horse, Bos longifrons, pig, sheep, goat, red-deer, and roe-deer. There were dredged ир also with them several human skulls that had been gashed and partially cleft, and Roman horse trappings. The river at Kew is shallow, and when we take the number of bronze swords into consideration, some of them even with the metallic end of the scabbard still on the blade, the human skulls and the Roman phalera, it is very probable that it was the site of a battle between the Kelts and the Roman legions. All that can be said with reference to the date of the accumulation of bones, is that it was probably anterior to the time of the Romans. A little higher up the river, near the new water

* "Introd. Pleistocene Mammalia.” Part I., 1866. Paleontographical Society.

† "Archæologia," vol. xxxvii. p. 363. “Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries," vol. iv. p. 93.

| “Fossil Skull of Ox.” By Henry Woods, A.L.S. 4to. London, 1839.

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