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some further particulars of their peculiarities, are given in the order in which they were studied, but with the exception that those of the same genus are now classed together.
Trigla cuculus.-The scales appear obscurely, as if in rows, almost perpendicular to the sides, and not appearing to overlap each other; and yet they lie much as in other fishes, but with the widest part concealed by the skin; so that only the outermost portion appears. On the upper part of the body each alternate row is more raised than the next; but in some parts irregularly so.
In T. lineata these lines of scales are much more strongly marked than in T. cuculus, as well by their colour as linear arrangement, and in both cases more plainly when they have become dry.
T. gurnardus, T. piper.
Ammodytes Tobianus.—This fish is placed next to the gurnards, because of the somewhat similar arrangement of scales with that of T. lineata, but the rows are more oblique.
Labrus balanus.-A particular formation in the scales of this family is, that not only is the (commonly finely-coloured) skin carried under the fore edge of each scale, but in the form of a membrane it is extended a little beyond it. This covering skin is rather loosely attached to the surfaco in which it is enclosed; but it is held firmly by a band or process which proceeds from a stout and tough membrane that lies on, and is firmly fastened to, the flesh beneath. In L. coquus they are still adhering by a process below them, as in L. balanus, although more feebly.
Mullus surmuletus.-The scales are but loosely fastened, and yet the strongest bond is on the under surface of the disk; and toward the free edge there are perforations, and vessels that pass toward the root; among which are two that are larger than the others, and which lie along the lines or channels of the hindmost crenations. These vessels are not clearly marked in all the scales; but it cannot be doubted that they exist in all, and thus they serve to demonstrate, as in other instances, that the centre of action is in the disk. Of the gorgeous colours of this fish, which are in perfection only in life, the yellow of the lines, and also a tinge of red, are in the skin covering the scales, the yellow being especially over the disk; but there is a strong border of bright red in the skin beneath, toward the free edge, and which shines through the transparency of the scale. The more vivid colour of the yellow is also below the scale.
Pagellus centrodontus.—The scales in some degree resemble those of the surmullet, but are smaller; and those of the lateral spot are somewhat different from the others in some particulars beyond the colour.
Clupea pilchardus.-In all the examples examined there has been found a peculiarity of which there has not been seen anything like it in other sorts of fish, but the nature of which appears exceedingly obscure. It is, that below the lower portion of many of the scales, and not of all, and not always in exactly the same place, there has been a separate very small scale-one or more, even to three or four. They resemble in a considerable degree, both in size and figure, as well as in organization, the scales of the trout; and they never occur behind the middle of the covering scale, while the latter are as firmly fixed as any of the others. One of these small scales only was seen to have points at its edge.
Cluper harengus, Engraulis encrasicholus, Alosa finta; A. squamopinnata, mitri.
Serranus cabrilla, Sebastes norvegicus.
Esox lucius.-A peculiarity is, that the lobes of the crenations at the inner border on the left overlap each other.
Belona vulgaris.-Although the bones of this fish are naturally green, the scales are not so, except from the colour of the skin that covers them.
Pleuronectes punctatus, Rhombus vulgaris.
Salmo trutta.—The scales, as in all of this tribe, are small and thin, with a shining pearly look; the cause of which is not in the scale itself, but it proceeds from a bright deposit or lining on the lower surface, and may be easily removed. Such is the case also with some other fishes, and in the young salmon it appears to be formed at that period of its growth when a migration to salt water has become necessary to its well-being. The scales of S. trutta are attached chiefly, if not solely, at the disk, and that not firmly. S. Fario.
Scomber vulgaris, Sc. scriptus, Nobis, Ausonia Cuvierii.
Brama Raii.-- In the axilla of the pectoral fin is an arrangement of scales formed in the likeness of a moveable cover, and which in size and shape differ from those of the rest of the body.
Among the fishes of the genus Gadus the scales are small, and of the simplest form, which does not require particular remark.
Several kinds of fishes, also, from the Upper or White Nile, have been studied, with the same object, of observing the pecnliarities of their scales; but in this they do not differ from our common kinds.
THE GRAVE-MOUNDS OF DERBYSHIRE, AND
(With a Plate.)
(Continued from page 189.) The Flint implements found in the Derbyshire grave-mounds are extremely varied in form, and many of them of the most exquisite workmanship—such indeed as would completely baffle the skill, great though that skill undoubtedly is, of “Flint Jack"
copy. The arrangement, classification, and nomenclature of Aints is at present so uncertain, and so mixed up with absurd theories, that it is difficult to know how to place them in a common sense manner. All I shall attempt to do in this present paper-which is intended to describe, generally, the relics to be found in the barrows of Derbyshire, and not to be a disquisition on flints alone—will be to give examples of some of the more usual forms which have from time to time been found, so as to facilitate comparisons with those of other
counties and countries. Of arrow and spear-headsand" daggerblades," almost every known form have, at one time or other, been exhumed in Derbyshire. The engravings here given will pretty well show the most general and best developed shapes. The first represents three barbed arrow-heads, and a daggerblade, (6 inches long) from Green-Low. The arrow-heads are of the most general types of the barbed variety, but they are not unfrequently found of a longer, and consequently more taper, form. The dagger-blade is of what is usually called the “leaf-shaped” type, and is the prototype of the bronze dagger of a later period. Another, and of perhaps much finer form, is shown on the accompanying plate, Fig. 1. It was found at Arbor-Low in June 1865, and is
51 inches in length and nearly 21 inches in width in the centre. In its thickest part it is scarcely
of an inch in thickness, and is chipped and worked with the utmost nicety to a fine edge. It will be noticed that its sides as they begin to diminish, are deeply serrated for fastening with thongs to the haft or handle.* The next illustration shows three of the most usual types of the leaf-shaped arrowheads—which are here, in each instance engraved of their full size. On our plate is also shown (Fig. 2) a remarkably elegant example. A small disk of flint is also shown on the same plate. The form of this variety of flint instrument (the leafshaped arrow-heads) it will be seen differs considerably, ranging from the acutely angled and sharply pointed shapes to those
of a nicely-rounded and egg-shaped form. Pl., Figs 4 and 5 are two characteristic examples of peculiarly-formed flints, which are not unfrequently found in Derbyshire, but the use of which has not at present been satisfactorily ascertained, and which I believe have seldom before been engraved. In a classification of the flints of Derbyshire, and a comparison of their forms with those of other districts, which I am engaged upon, I hope to throw considerable light on the different types, their peculiarities and uses.
Another description again, which appears more intended for throwing than for any other purpose—and which with its sharp cutting edges, and the unerring aim of the Briton must have been indeed a deadly weapon-is frequently found, and is shown on the plate Fig. 6. It is a simple circular lump of
an inch and half, or a couple of inches, or more, in diameter; flat on one side, and chipped into a roundness on the other. Scrapers, too, are very generally found, and are of the usual forms. Flakes, of various sizes and forms constantly occur. These
This fine specimen is in possession of my friend Mr. Lucas.
are frequently called flint knives, or scrapers, but the term is so
indefinite that it is for the present better discarded than retained. Flint celts are occasionally found. An example here shown was discovered in a very interesting barrow, called Gospel Hillock,
at Cow Dale near Buxton,* by Captain Lukis. It measured 4 inches in length.
The Stone implements consist of celts or adzes, and hammer-heads; the usual form of the Derbyshire stone celt is much the same as the flint example just given, but other shapes do occasionally occur. The examples here given, show three of
the forms of hammer or axe-heads, or mauls, which are found.
In size, these implements vary from three to eleven inches in length. The usual materials of which they are composed are basalt, quartz-pebbles, argillaceous slate, jasper, green and black schist, sands tone, etc.
Whetstones, spindle whorls, balls of See the “Reliquary," vol. viü. (1867). + The largest found in Derbyshire of which I possess any record, measured 11 inches in length, 4 inches in width, 31 inches in depth, and weighed 101 lbs.