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This is one of the most interesting Agarics with which I am acquainted. The whole pileus is veined. Agaricus phlebophorus, which belongs to a different sub-genus, is the only one with which I can compare it.
4. Porlaxon carcinomalis, Fries.; Lycoperdon carcinomale, Linn. fil. (Figs. 1 to 4). At first cylindrical, obtuse, white with a few brown elongated adpressed scales, gradually becoming clavate above, with the scales standing out, then with a distinct elliptic head; stem nearly smooth, penetrating deeply, and surrounded within the thick peridium with the hymenium, which is at first porous like the crumb of a loaf, and then, as in a puff-ball, filled with dusty spores. Varying considerably in size, sometimes six inches or more high.
It occurs at the Cape of Good Hope, where it was originally found by Thunberg, and has lately been gathered by Dr. Welwitsch on the western coast of Africa. It is probably common in India. It is said to have been used for dressing cancerous sores in Africa, whence it derives its specific name. Our woodcut represents it in three stages of growth, together with a section of the plant while the hymenium is still young.
5. Phallus truncatus (Fig.5), n.s. Volva dark brown, pointed below, where it gives off a strongish rootlet, truncate above, not lobed, but with the margin entire ; stem three inches high, half an inch thick in the centre, bright sienna brown inclining to orange, porous, attenuated at the base, capped above with the connate receptacle, above three quarters of an inch high, which is slightly reticulated, broadly truncate at the apex. Sometimes the cap carries up with it a portion of the white inner membrane of the volva.
Nearly allied to Phallus aurantiacus, Montagne, but differing in the remarkably truncate apex and brown volva. This, with the foregoing species, is figured in General Hardwicke's drawings.
A VISIT TO GLEN CLOVA-ITS GEOLOGY AND
BY BERNARD HENRY WOODWARD.
Clova is a village situated in the extreme north-west of Forfarshire, the most picturesque part of that county, being in the midst of the Grampian mountains. It consists of a few small farm-houses and shepherds' cottages scattered along the glen from which it derives its name, and which is about ten miles in length and stretches from N. W. to S. E. The houses are clustered a little more thickly round the church, which stands about four miles from the bead of the valley; and near it, at the foot of Ben Reid, are the ruins of Clova Castle, formerly inhabited by the Ogilvy family, who have owned the parish since 1445. The present proprietor, the Earl of Airlie, one of their descendants, resides at Cortachie Castle, which we passed just before entering this glen on our road from Kirriemuir, the nearest railway station, though fifteen miles distant.
There is a good carriage-road the whole length of the glen, running by the side of the South Esk river, a fine trout stream rising in Loch Esk, a small lake at the head of Glen Bachna-gairn, and flowing into the sea at Montrose. At the lower part of Clova Glen, the hills on each side are rounded, covered with fir-trees, and are about 1500 feet high, from which they gradually rise to upwards of 3000 feet above the sea level in the upper part, where they are quite bare of trees and very wild and precipitous. The valley widens considerably for the first four miles, and then draws in again. A considerable extent of the level ground at the bottom of the valley is ploughed, though the greater portion is left for pasturage, on which a good many Highland cattle are reared; which, together with the sheep that are turned loose to browse on the hills, afford a means of support to about 200 people, the present population of the parish. Some years ago, as is testified by the many ruined cottages in the glen, its inhabitants were three or four times as numerous, when they obtained a livelihood by the distillation of
mountain-dew”; but a more strict surveillance on the part of the excise officers stopped that lucrative pursuit. Last year the oat crop turned out very badly; when we were there, in the latter part of August, many of the fields were quite green, and in some no ears were visible.
But we ought not to have said level ground, for it is only level in comparison, being covered with rounded billocks,
moraines,” formed of the debris deposited by the glacier which once filled this glen. Where its surface has been
ploughed, the numerous boulders of granite, with which the glen and the valley of Strathmore to the south are strewn, have been used to build dykes to separate the fields. These boulders are chiefly of syenitic granite and gneiss, of which latter rock the hills at the top of the glen are composed, while those at the lower part are mica-slate.
We noticed on ascending the glen a strange murmur, qnite distinct from the rushing and splashing of the South Esk in its numerous small falls and rapids, which seemed to pervade the whole air, continually growing louder as we advanced, and we also observed that the narrow, tortuous, silvery streaks running down the sides of the hills, became more frequent, and on a close approach found that these were small streamlets, which in their headlong course caused this murmuring sound with their miniature cascades, which made up by number what they wanted in strength. A succession of falls from the summits to the feet of the hills, caused them to appear white in the distance, though here and there they formed small still pools, which were fringed with mosses, and sheltered by rocks; on their sides were growing luxuriantly the delicate Oak fern, Polypodium dryopteris, together with the Beech fern, P. phegopteris, and the Brittle Bladder fern, Cystopteris fragilis.
Clova Glen separates at the north-west end into two narrower but wilder glens, that to the left being called Glen Dole, and the one to the right Bach-na-gairn. There is a bad carriage-road up the latter for four miles to a shooting-box, and beyond that a bridle-road leading over the hills and down Glen Muick to Balmoral. At the head of this glen is Loch Esk, where the South Esk river has its source, and forms a fine waterfall over sixty feet in height just below the loch. The scenery all along is very grand, surpassing the famed Spital of Glenshee,
Near the loch, which is on the borders of an extensive deer-forest covering sixty square miles of country, are a number of fine larch and spruce trees, planted some tourteen years ago, to afford shelter to the deer. Craig Ought, the hill at the commencement of this glen, which separates it from Glen Dole, is extremely precipitous on this side, and at its base is an immense quantity of rock, that has been thrown down in the course of years by the disintegrating action of frost. Many of the fractures being quite fresh, we had a good opportunity for inspecting the nature of the rock, which consisted principally of felstone, porphyry, and syenite; the latter varying very much in texture, some parts being extremely finegrained, while others contained very large crystals of hornblende. In some the quartz was almost wholly absent, and in
other parts it preponderated largely. The prevailing colour of the syenite is dark grey, and is heightened, in some places, by a considerable quantity of black mica. Higher up the glen, we found some granite containing pyrrhotine (magnetic iron pyrites), in which the felspar was flesh-coloured, as it is in the gneiss, which latter rock covers nearly the whole or Scotland to the north and west of this district.
In Glen Dole, which we explored on the Wednesday, there is not even a pathway, except those made by the sheep; and after we had passed a short distance beyond Dole farmhouse, the last in Clova Glen, we did not see a single person during the whole day, until we had almost reached the same place on our return in the evening, when we saw a shepherd on the opposite hills !
Here the moraines are much more frequent and clearly defined than in Clova Glen. They are all covered, as are the hills, with heather, which was just coming into bloom. We followed the “White Water," as the branch of the South Esk flowing down this gleu is called, for a couple of miles, and then turned with it up Glen Phee, where it forms a charming waterfall, or rather a succession of falls, which, at a short distance, look like one, and from the appearance of the spray give to the burn its name. The water, as is the case with all mountain streams which flow over peaty soil, is of a brownish colour. This is plainly seen in any of the numerous deep pools occurring here and there along its course, and affording good shelter for many a "lusty trout.” Here we found the Brittle and the Toothed Bladder ferns, Cystopteris fragilis and O. dentata, growing luxuriantly, with the Oak and Beech ferns, Polypodium dryopteris and P. phegopteris ; the two latter are very common throughout the Clova district at the bottoms of the valleys; also, in the moist crevices of the rocks, Wilson's film fern, Hymenophyllum unilaterale, and, bigher up on the hills, splendid plants of the Holly fern, Polystichum lonchitis, with fronds two feet high. This was tolerably abundant; but we were unsuccessful in our search for Woodsia ilvensis, which has been found here by Dr. Balfour, as has also the Woodsia hyperborea in Glen Bach-na-gairn. The Hard fern, Blechnum boreale, grows to the summits of the hills, though it is rather stunted at the greater altitudes.
On Thursday we visited Loch Brandy, a mountain tarn, situated about half-a- mile to the east of the church, but at an elevation of 1300 feet above it, which made it a good hour's walk, for there is not even a foot-path up to it. On our ascent by the side of Corrie Burn, we noticed Lastrea spinulosa, L. dilatata, and L. oreopteris. The latter is very common throughout the district. Polystichum lonchitis, P. angulare, etc., the
Bilberry and the Mountain or Cloud-berry, Rubus chamamorus, together with that pretty Alpine plant with silvery leaves, Alchemilla alpina, grow everywhere amongst the heather which covers the hills here; and we saw also a great many of those rare Alpine species for which Clova is such a noted locality.
Loch Brandy is about a mile and a half in circumference, and abounds in pike and trout. From the summit of the hills, which rise precipitately in a semicircle at the north of the Loch to about 700 feet above it, one obtains, on a fine day, a splendid view over the surrounding country to the south, along the Clova Glen, across the valley of Strathmore; while to the east, north, and west are to be seen nothing but mountains, and mountains beyond mountains, right away into the blue distance. A shepherd whom we met told us the names of a great many, but with such a Highland accent that we could catch only one here and there, amongst which were Loch-nagar, and Glas Miel, etc.
But we must not omit to point out the best means of access to Clova. We preferred travelling by sea from London to Edinburgh, to being shut up in a close railway carriage for twelve hours; and so took a steamer from Irongate Wharf, bound for Leith. We had a pleasant and quick passage
down of only thirty-seven hours, on board the “Oscar, one of the swiftest of the Leith steamers, which are all noted for their speed, the weather being almost too calm ; but on our return it was rather rough, which was a pleasant change. The “Oscar” is 240 feet long, by 30 feet broad, and of 900 tons burden. From the steamer one has a good view of a great portion of the eastern coast. We had to give the flat shore of Essex a wide berth, but approached land a little nearer when passing Suffolk and Norfolk, though almost the only objects to be seen on them were the Martello towers placed at intervals along the shore, and the two lighthouses on Orford Ness. At Cromer we first see cliffs. In crossing by the Wash we lose sight of land for some time.
time. While passing the bold Yorkshire coast, we kept still closer to the shore, sighting Flamborough Head, at 7.15 on the Sunday morning, having left London at 10 the day before; next Filey Brig, Scarborough, with its ruined castle, Robin Hood's Bay, then Whitby, in the neighbourhood of which so many fossil ammonites are found, and of which the popular tradition runs :
“And how, of thousand snakes, each one
When holy Hilda prayed."
The magnificent abbey, now in ruins, which forms a con.