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haps so small that when all the dimensions are placed upon it, it will be confused, and trouble the workman to work from it.

In this case it is necessary to choose a scale which will enlarge the drawing. A scale of 2 inches equal 1 inch is possibly used, and in this case, when the drawing is complete, a measurement on it of 2 inches represents 1 inch on the piece itself.

Now, in the work which we are following, we shall have use for both the reducing and increasing scales, but more especially for the former.

In Figs. 118, 119 and 120 we show three common reducing scales, and in Fig. 121 a common increasing scale.

The double scale (Fig. 121) or 142 or triple scale, will be found of use in the practice work which we have been giving, in making an enlarged drawing from a smaller one. If there is a measure ment of 142 inch on the smaller drawing, and the double scale is being used, to represent that dimension the larged drawing, three inches of the double scale must be taken, that is, from 0 to 3 on Fig. 121,

The small divisions at the left of this scale represent fractions of an inch, each of the smallest divisions representing 1-16 inch, the next larger 48 inch, the next 14 inch, and finally 12 inch.

Fig. 120 shows a scale of 12 inch equals 1 foot, and is a scale that is sometimes used, though not so often as the 14 inch and 18 inch. The 12 inch scale will be found very handy in making a large drawing of small work, for instance, in making a good sized drawing of the plans and elevations of the plumbing for a small house. It must be understood that in Fig. 120, for instance, each fig. ured division represents a full inch on a drawing which is drawn to a scale of you inch equal 1 foot. Therefore, the full length of the scale shown would represent 14 inches, on the scale drawing, though measuring actually only half that amount.

We have chosen to consider lastly the two scales which are most important in this work, that is, the 14 and 18 inch scales shown in Figs. 118 and 119. In the next chapter these two scales will be considered fully, and examples of their application given.





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HE two scales of most importance shown represents 28 feet. In Fig. 119

to the architect and, therefore, each eighth-inch division represents 1
of most importance to the foot, and the total length shown repre-

plumber are those of 14-inch = sents 56 feet. Thus, in comparing the 1 foot, and 18 inch 1 foot.

Of these, by far the more commonly used is the scale of 14 inch = 1 foot, which is used for practically all ordinary work, the 48 inch scale being used on large work.

Fig. 124. 18

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Fig. 122. These two scales were shown in Figs. two scales, we find, as might be expected, 118 and 119 of the preceding article. that when equal lengths are laid off on

In Fig. 118 each quarter-inch division each scale, that the given length reprerepresents 1 foot, and the total length sents on the 48 scale, just twice the di

mension on the 14 scale. In order to show in a practical way the application

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FIG. 127

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R. =' gt. Fig. 122, the actual length of the sketch to use the information given in this is 442 inches, but it would be entirely book will probably find it almost neceswrong to place that dimension on the

sary to procure a scale for the work that drawing. The dimension that should ap- we are about taking up. There are two pear is the dimension that the 412 inches styles of boxwood scales commonly in use, represents on the scale that is being used, which we represent in Figs. 124 and 125. that is, 18 feet.

The triangular scale is the more exThis point may not have needed an ex- pensive of the two, and has a larger num

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we require is a knowledge of the distance between floors and the depth of floor timbers, and in addition the pitch of the roof in order to know the length of the vertical line of soil pipe. This elevation is obtained by viewing the house from the front, and it will be seen that in this view the two stacks would appear one behind the other. After drawing the cellar wall, to ocate the position of the



ber of different scales upon it than the flat scale. At the same time, if a flat architect's scale having a quarter and eighth scales can be procured, it will answer all purposes.

The flat scale has one great advantage over the triangular, from the fact that one often has to turn the latter several times before finding the scale desired, whereas the flat scale shows plainly at all times.

Now having looked into the subject of the different scales, let us apply it in the making of the several plans for a cottage house, this being the simplest construction that we can use for our purpose. Suppose we have a house to plan whose main dimensions are 36 feet x 24 feet. If we use a scale of 14 inch = 1 foot, the plans will appear 9 inches x 6 inches, which calls for a larger space than we can afford to give up, although if we were laying out this work on a sheet of paper rather than on the page of a publication where every inch is, of value, the quarter scale for work of this kind would be far preferable. Under the conditions we are obliged to show the plans and elevation of this work on a scale of 18 inch = 1 foot, and in much of the large work we should have to resort to a scale even smaller, probably 1-16 inch = 1 foot.

The cellar plan we show in Fig. 126, and such parts of the first and second floors as contain plumbing work are shown respectively in Figs. 127 and 128. In addition to the plans, we show in Fig. 129, a very simple elevation of the work in question. This elevation is of the most rudimentary style, but it gives us much information in the line of plumbing as an elaborate and finished elevation; all

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Fig. 129. Elevation for Cottage House.

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stacks in Fig. 129, measure to the left of the wall a distance equal to the distance on the cellar plan from the foundation to the center of the main drain.

We show simply a single line to designate the length of the soil pipe risers. If those of our readers who are not used to scaling drawings will figure out the distance in feet between the several floors and the depth of floor beams, it will be good practice for them, and this might be done also with the cellar plan.

In Fig. 130 we give two simple sketches of the two stacks shown on the cellar and floor plans. The same scale that has been used on these plans is used on the elevations of the two stacks, as far as heights between floors, etc., is concerned, but the diameter of the pipe, length of fittings, etc., is not drawn to this scale; in fact, not to any scale.

It can readily be seen that if this scale were followed on the piping the diameter of the 4-inch pipe would appear on our drawing as only 1-24-inch, which would be too small to show well. It will usually be found almost impossible to adhere to the scale on the piping for the reason just given. We would advise the reader as

excellent practice work, to work out the several floor plans on some scale larger than that which we have followed, com. pleting fully the two floor plans which we have shown only partially complete, and also completing the work on the elevations of Fig. 130, by showing the fix. tures and all their connections.

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