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instead of showing the stacks passing through the roof, simply designate that point by an accompanying note.

Increased to 4"

through roof. main Vent enters stack through

vent tee

3rd. Floor

Plumbing samt as on third floor;

main Vent


2nd Floor,

In Fig. 113 we show an elevation of the bath room work of the apartment building under consideration. On this work, the bath rooms on each side of the house are served by a single stack, as our drawing shows.

It will be observed that this view of the work is obtained by looking upon it from the rear (see arrow F). As we saw in the case of the kitchen stacks, the bathroom stack runs up through the wall, and of necessity must be offset in order to lead into the main drain. In this drawing, the main line of vent appears in front of the stack, and therefore shows plainly. Just below the first floors two lines of vent are connected into the main vent, these pipes being the vents from the refrigerator drip sinks in the cellar. The work shown in all four drawings of this chapter are given the student for practice work, which will be found easier if made on a larger scale. We have said but little on scale drawings thus far, but before one can take up the figuring of work from drawings, it becomes neces. sary to understand this matter. Therefore, in our next chapter we shall take the subject up to a sufficient extent to en. able the student to use a scale in his work.

It has probably been noticed that we have for some little time been showing lines on floor timbers in our drawings, which represent wood. This is not a necessity by any means, but a reference to Figs. 112 and 113 will convince the reader, we believe, that it sets off a drawing to quite an extent, and adds to its appearance.

Likewise, the section lines of the divi. sion wall shown in Fig. 113 are of benefit, as well as the lines showing brick and stone work.

The cross section lines take quite an amount of time to put in in proper shape, to be sure, but the lines showing wood and stone are very quickly put in.

Some of the detail work connected with the six flat apartment building which we have been considering, we shall show in the next chapter.

1st. Floos

Connectɛa to hort izontal through Yana Yg bena.

FIG. 112.




1st Floor

Back Air Pipe


-207 727nUp

Ducted into main Stack



S will be seen by reference to the All modern ordinances prohibit direct

floor plan of the six-flat depart- connection of the refrigerator with the
ment building shown in the drainage system, and reference to our

last chapter, each flat is sup- sketch will show that the line is disconplied with a refrigerator and each line of nected at the sink, simply carrying the refrigerators on the two sides of the build- drip from the refrigerators into the sink,

and the sink being trapped and vented in the usual manner as shown here.

A note on Fig. 114, and also one on Fig. 113, call attention to the fact that the vent from this sink is carried into the bath room main vent line. The use of a note, as in this case, often saves the labor and space involved in showing such work as it actually exists. In Fig. 115 we give a sketch showing in detail the connection of one of the rain leaders

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ing is served by a line of waste or drip pipe. This pipe is usually of galvanized wrought iron, as stated by the note attached to Fig. 114, which shows the refrigerator work of the building under consideration. As the connection of each of the two refrigerators on the second and third floors into the main line of waste is the same as that on the first floor. We simply show the latter, with the drip sink and its connections below.

into the drainage system. It will be noticed that the leader is not provided with a trap. As a general thing, wherever there is a main trap no separate traps

are placed on the rain leaders. If there were no main trap on this system, however, it would be necessary to trap separately each line of rain leaders.

Fig. 116 gives a sketch in detail of the cellar drainage. It represents

a well formed in the concrete cellar bottom, with the hub end of a P trap cemented into the bottom of the well, and connected with the main drain. Into this well the various lines of sub-soil drain are carried. In some cities it is required by ordinance to carry the water supply di.

conductor Pipe



Cellar Bottom

rect to the cellar drainage well, so that in the event of a drought and the consequent evaporation of the trap seal, the seal may be renewed.

With the main trap, however, this dan. ger is not so much to be feared, for the main trap acts as a safeguard to the entrance of sewer gas through the cellar drainage system.

The sketch shown in Fig. 117 shows the work connected with the drainage system usually found at the front cellar wall. In order to economize space, in. stead of carrying the fresh air inlet up to a proper height, we have carried it low, and by cutting off the cellar wall, the fact that the full height is not shown is made known. The concrete is shown with a well formed about the cleanouts on the main trap, so that easy access may be had to them. Cast iron soil pipe is shown carried two lengths or ten feet outside the cellar wall, where it is entered into the tile drain.

This provision is made in most ordinances, to provide against the leaching back into the cellar of sewage that might escape from the tile drain if for any reason broken at some future time. The fresh air inlet is represented as carried underground twenty feet out into the lawn, and brought up to the surface, ending in a ventilating cap. The carry. ing of the inlet twenty feet away from windows and doors is a sanitary provision required by many ordinances.

Although not so difficult to execute as much of the preceding exercise work, it will do the reader no harm to practice

the work shown in these four sketches.

As we intimated in our last article, we have come to a point now where it is necessary to use an exact scale, both in laying out drawings and in taking di. mensions from drawings.

It will no doubt already be known to most of our readers what the purpose of scale drawings is.

As an example, let us suppose that the civil engineer is getting out a map of property covering several acres. It is obvious that it is utterly impossible to make such a drawing full size. The drawing must, however, show everything in

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Well formed ia concrete Sub Soil Cellar Bottom Erztrance

concrete Cellar Bottom

Into main Drain



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