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two cases are the same size as the stacks they cannot be seen. To get around this point we have shown these two lines a little to one side of the stacks. This is not strictly according to the letter, but as it results in a clearer showing of this part of the work, it is admissible.

Stacks B and C, as will be seen from Fig. 91 of a preceding chapter, enter hori

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Fig. 108.

the work of such a system as the one shown in our illustration is shown more clearly and to better advantage by making separate elevations of different parts of the work, viewing the several parts from the most advantageous position, rather than to show it all in one elevation. However, it sometimes happens

which the stacks pass through the roof brings to mind the fact that a roof plan is sometimes very useful in showing this location. We therefore present Fig. 106 as a roof plan of the residence, of which we have been showing plans and eleva. tions. This plan shows the exact location of the four stacks, A, B, C and D.

While dealing with this part of the work it will be well to take up the subject of roof connections, and to that end we show several methods of doing this work, in Figs. 107, 108 and 109. The two roof flanges or shoes, shown in Fig. 107 and the upper one in Fig. 108, are patent devices, and in the case of the two first mentioned, have shown sectional views, to better represent them. The other connection of Fig. 108 shows a roof connection made from ordinary sheet lead. In Fig. 109 we have shown two


methods of roof connection for flat roofs, those preceding having been or pitch roofs. The upper method shows a patent flange, while the other gives a method for using sheet lead.

Figs. 107, 108 and 109 will give the student good practice work, and we advise in connection with it the making of sectional views, such as we have given.


CHAPTER XXI PROBLEM which brings in a few all three floors, as the plumbing of each points not heretofore covered by is identical. the work which we have taken up, In the cellar plan is shown in addition

is that of a six-flat apartment to the main drain and branch lines to the building. This style of building, laid out kitchen stacks, the rain leaders, the celafter the style which we show, is very lar drainage and sub-soil drainage syscommon, and the six-flat building will tems, and the drip sinks which are pro

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winter months when the refrigerators may possibly not be in use, the danger of the evaporation of the seal in the sink trap may be lessened. As to the sub-soil drainage, in some sections of the country it is hardly ever used, but in others, where there is a damp soil, nearly every house or building must be supplied with it. The dotted lines showing the subsoil drain represent porous tile with loose joints, and it will be noticed that this drain is carried into the well formed for the cellar drainage. Other lines of

the work. Probably most of our readers will agree that in figuring such a job as this one, it would be the easiest thing in the world to forget to figure in the Y branch and bend making up this offset. With a drawing, even if it is not elaborately drawn, this and a score of other little points are brought to one's attention, and "forgetting to figure" fittings, etc., will not happen so often.

Probably by this time those of our readers who have been carefully preserving this book will see at a glance that the

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Six FLAT APARTMENT HOUSE sub-soil drain may be run out into the elevation of Fig. 112 is taken looking in center of the cellar if desired.

the direction of the arrow G in Fig. 111. In Fig. 112 is shown an elevation of This brings the stack and the vent line the plumbing work of the kitchens. As one behind the other, and for that reason will be seen from the floor plan, the the work does not show as clearly as kitchens belonging to the two apartments might be desired. The vent line it will on each floor are at opposite ends of the be noticed, does not connect at its foot building, and therefore require separate back into the stack, but as shown, ends in stacks, and as these stacks run in re- a hub ferrule, to which the two fixture cesses in the wall, they require offsetting vents connect. below the first floor, as we show. This To be brief and to the point, we show matter of the offset will perhaps show in in Fig. 112, and also in Fig. 113, only the a slight way the benefit of a drawing of work on the lower, and upper floors, and

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