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special scale, of course it will be necessary to work according to such scale,

parts of the work, as will be of the great est assistance in giving a clear idea of the method of putting in the work.

In Figs. 39, 40 and 41, we give three exercises, which the student will do well to practice on faithfully. They are somewhat more difficult than those which have preceded them, though not too difficult. We would advise going over the work several times if necessary to get results that will be satisfactory, carefully comparing the work with that which we give, and noting where improvements can be made.

It will be noticed on each of these exercises that there are a number of dots. These dots represent the centers for the different curves, that is, the points on which the instrument must be placed to draw the curves correctly. We have done ihis for the reason that the beginner in drawing, often has difficulty in deciding how large a radius he must take for striking a given curve.

Wherever a pipe curves, both the inside and outside curves are struck from the same centre. This must be so of course, in order that the bend in the pipe may be of the same diameter at every point. The further off the center is taken, or in other words, the greater the radius, the greater the zweep the curve will have. Thus in Fig. 39, it will be noticed that a branch enters the vertical line of pipe just below the entrance of the waste from the sink, and that in doing so quite a wide sweep is made, the center for which is nearly an inch away.

This we should draw in the following manner: Put in first the Y branch, which will give us the direction the curve has got to take. Next draw in the lines representing the straight run of pipe just under the floor. Then connect this straight section with the Y by means of the curve. After this has been done, draw in the hubs, erasinę such of the lines as are not needed. In drawing the straight section of pipe beneath the floor, do not try to stop the lines at the exact point where the curves will meet them, but put them in indefinite length, and erase whatever runs by, after putting in the curves. Now, in laying out these drawings, if they are to be made on a


Fig. 40---Another Practice Drawing.

ing the work in whichever way it may be necessary. In the case of Fig. 41 we show an oval bowl. A side view of it, however, would not be materially different from the common round bowl.

In Fig. 40 it will be noticed that the

but if the drawing is simply to show the general manner in which the work is to be installed, as would more often be the case in making plumbing drawings, then we need not be so careful in making the layout. We will suppose in the case of Figs. 39, 40 and 41, that no scale is required. Decide first on which side of the fixture the main waste and vent lines are to be run, then draw them without hubs, and draw the fixture in its position. Very often it is best as in the case of the sink in Fig. 39, to show the waste at the further end of the sink, as it can readily be seen that it would be close work to show it properly at the other end.

After having drawn the waste for the sink to the floor, draw in a general way the horizontal section of waste under the floor, with sufficient pitch, and from the course of this pipe it can be seen where the Y branch will have to be located. Then draw the Y branch beneath, and the branch line of pipe running into it, as explained above.

Now as to putting in the offset, it will probably be easier to draw in the main line into which the vertical branches, and come up with the bend, before putting in the offset. This method would usually be better, though in the present instance it does not matter particularly.

It will be noticed that in these exercises we have shown both sink and lavatory in two positions, one in which it is seen from the front, and the other from the end. This we do in order that the student may become accustomed to show


lavatory appears to set too close to the ceiling, and that the vertical lines of pipe are broken. It often happens that in order to economize space, fixtures shown in illustrations appear too close to the ceiling. Many times this is almost unavoidable if the work is to be shown on a good fair scale, and often in such cases, the pipes are broken off, to show that the full length or height does not appear.


E have given more or less space the spaces; the height of the back to the

in this book to the consider- lavatory is 10 inches, the height of the ceil.
ation of drawings drawn to ing from the bathroom floor is about 10

scale, and this brings to mind feet, etc. These spaces might just as propa suggestion along the same line, which rely represent 2 inches or 8 inches or any may be of value. In Figs. 42 and 43, we other dimension. It is always best, howshow an elevation of bathroom work, with floor plan for the same. It will be noticed that the space on which these drawings have been made, is ruled off, into oneeighth inch squares. Paper ruled in this manner, and called co-ordinate paper, can be procured usually of stationers, and for the making of scale drawings is often very useful. In Figs. 42 and 43, we have used a scale

Side View of 18-inch to 4-inches. In other words, each

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ever, to make the scale just as large as the amount of work to be shown, and the size of the paper will allow.

It is probable that many of our readers End View

in different parts of the country are al

ready familiar with this method of laying Fig. 44.—Showing a Side and End View of a out drawings, for many boards of health Bath Tub.

require such drawings as we show in Figs. one of the spaces, whether vertical or hori.

42 and 43, and supply paper ruled in this zontal, represents 4 inch on the actual very way, on which the drawings are subwork.

mitted. Thus, the diameter of the soil pipe, 4 Most of the practice work which we have inch, takes up a single space; the 2 inch heretofore presented in this book, has pipe takes up in diameter, half of one of been on soil pipe work. We have reached


Fig. 42.-Each of the Spaces, Vertical or Horizontal, Represents 4 in. on the Actual Work.

a point now, where we need to be able to draw the different fixtures, and we there fore show in Figs. 44, 45, and 46, come of this work.

In Fig. 44 we show a side and an end view of a bath tub, for we must be pre pared to show this or any other fixture in either position.

Fig. 45 gives views of a water closet which is general in shape, and unless some particular type is to be shown on a draw ing, this form we believe, will be found easier to draw than most any other. For

the different views of these fixtures, and would advise practice in constructing them, first, on the same scale that we show, and then on a larger scale, as it is of course necessary to be able to draw work in any size, and not well to practice continually on the size which we give in the exercises.

After devoting some time to the above practice, we would ask our readers to take up the work shown in Fig. 47, which brings into use the fixtures we are now familiar with, and in certain ways is


Showing a Scale of 1-8 inch to 4 inches, same as in Fig. 42.

some reason or other, the washout water closet shown in Fig. 46, often appears in plumbing drawings. While saying nothing as to the excellence of this particular type, or otherwise, it is a difficult matter for the beginner in drawing to show it properly proportioned. The incorrect view of Fig. 46 will serve to show some of the common errors made in illustrating this style of closet, which our readers will observe by comparing the same with the upper view.

We have indicated by dots, the centers of the several curves necessary in drawing

somewhat more difficult than preceding exercises. Skill in the drawing of plumbing work is simply a matter of practice, and we therefore again urge upon those following this series, to put in as much practice work as possible. If Fig. 47, or in fact any other work which we present, is on too small a scale for our readers to work easily, with the knowledge of the subject which they now possess, we would advise them to enlarge the size, say to double that which our work shows. It will be noticed in Fig 47, that the Y branch into which the bath and lavatory on the

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