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the running trap of Fig. 30. The common fault in drawing this fitting is to make the curve of the trap too low down, that is, to give the trap: a much deeper seal than is it really has. Another fault shown in No. 2 as compared with No. 1, is the length of the straight lines connecting the vent hubs with the trap. As seen in No. 1, these hubs set close to the trap, and are close together. We have taken up the construction of these particular fittings in order that use may be made of the instructions given in working out the exercise in drawing which we give in Fig. 31. We would suggest that with this figure as a model the student work out the combination of pipe and fittings as we give it, and on the same scale, or at least no smaller

scale. We believe, by applying the in. struction which we have already given, that the beginner will be able to work this exercise out without much difficulty: To start with, run the main line of pipe right through, regardless of fittings, giv ing it a slight pitch, as it would natur. ally have. Then put in the trap, and work back. In using the lead pencil do not bear down so heavily that when it comes to erasing lines later, to show in the fittings, the lines cannot be entirely erased. We should have stated previous to this that a hard lead pencil, preferably 6H, should be used, as it makes much cleaner work than a soft pencil. The very small curves, such as seen on the heads of hubs may best be put in by hand, rather than with instruments.

shows the location of the sink more fully chan Fig. 19, but Fig. 19 shows the connections more fully—the connection under the floor into the stack for instance, the height at which the sink set, etc.

As we said in looking into the matter of projection as the fundamental principle of drawing, the plan (Fig. 18) is obtained by looking down onto the sink, and the elevation (Fig. 19) by looking directly at it, just as one would look at the front of a building.

This elevation is taken looking at the front of the sink as the arrow points. An elevation might as properly have been taken looking at the end of the sink, as the dotted arrow points. There are certain reasons, however, why the elevation which we show gives a better view than the other. If the elevation had been taken from the end of the sink, it will

be noticed that the waste and vent lines would have come one in front of the other instead of side by side as the front elevation shows, and the trap and its back air pipe would not have shown broadside to us, as Fig. 19 represents.

Therefore, in this work, the layout of the work should be sized up first, and such an elevation chosen as will show the work to best advantage. There is another point to be observed from Figs. 18 and 19.

When drawn on the same scale as these two views are, and should be when possible, similar measurements taken on each should agree with each other: For instance, measure from the end of the lower drip board in the plan to the center of the vent line, and take the same measurement the elevation. The two measurements will be found to be the

on

same.

CHAPTER IV.

W

E have already stated, there

are two views of any pro-
posed piece of work that

the plumber will need, if the work is to be shown fully. These views are known as the plan and the elevation, and each is equally valuable. The plan is sometimes called the top view, that is to say, this view, by whichever term it may be known, is obtained by looking down upon the object or the work, that is to be shown. Now in Figs. 20, 21, 22, and 23, we show drawings for an ordinary cottage house, such

on his own line of work that he can look to for help.

Indeed, in a great many cases he does not need any further help. On the other hand, in a great many cases there is abundant use for a special drawing on the plumbing work of a building, and such a thing would often be of service to the plumber and to the architect and owner as well. If the architect had to work out in a drawing the way in which the different pipes, vent and waste would have to run, it would be the means of his giving more attention to the location

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Fig. 20—Showing Cellar Plan. Scale Y8-inch to 1 foot. as are usually drawn up by the architect of his fixtures, the laying out of bath having the work in charge, and such, no rooms, the running of floor timbers, etc.. doubt, as most of our readers are entire- and as a result, the plumber would find ly familiar with.

himself able to put in his work to better These views are what the plumber us- advantage, with less cutting, etc., than ually figures his work from, and as he is usually able to do under present general thing he has no further drawing existing and undesirable conditions.

a

CHAP I ER VI
HE making of complete elevations yet to make such drawings, it will be

of plumbing systems is one of well for us now to consider the general
the most important points of the points in connection with them.

subject which we are studying, The only requirements for making these and even though we are hardly able as views are the plans of the several floors

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such as are ordinarily submitted by the architect and an elevation of the building, from which the heights between floors, etc., may be obtained.

The elevation, whether it be of the

As the front of the house we take the end to the left, and the front elevation (Fig. 33), is taken by viewing the work from that point.

The side from which the work is viewed for the side elevations is the side on which the bath room is located. This side view might be taken from the side opposite if desired, and would be as correct a side elevation as the one we have taken.

While not always so, in the present instance the floor plans and plumbing ele. vations are made on the same scale.

Fig. 33-Front Elevation of Plumbing. house itself, or of the plumbing, may be taken either from the front or from the side.

In Fig. 32 we give the floor plans of the first and second floors of a residence with a plan elevation showing heights.

The cellar plan is not necessary for the making of the elevation ordinarily, for the elevation cannot usually show the pipes on the cellar bottom to such good advantage as the cellar plan can.

In Fig. 33 we give a front elevation of the plumbing for the house as shown in Fig. 32, and in Fig. 34, the side elevation.

Fig. 34.—Side Elevation of Plumbing. In order to be correct then, distances between certain points on the floor plans must be the same on the elevation. Therefore, in laying out the front elevation, the first thing to do is to lay out the two

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