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Figure 19—Showing an Elevation of a Common Kitchen Sink location of fixtures and soil, waste and These two drawings, if desired, may be vent lines, leaving the plumber to put in taken as exercises. his connections according to his own The suggestions made concerning the ideas.

five preceding sketches should be applied However, on many of the best jobs in drawing up Fig. 19. It can easily be nowadays, architects are giving an eleva- seen that each of these views is equally tion, showing the manner in which the necessary to the complete representation work is to be laid out.

of the sink and its connections. Fig. 18

shows the location of the sink more fully chan Fig. 19, but Fig. 19 shows the connections more fully—the connection under the floor into the stack for instance, the height at which the sink is set, etc.

As we said in looking into the matter of projection as the fundamental prin ciple of drawing, the plan (Fig. 18) is obtained by looking down onto the sink, and the elevation (Fig. 19) by looking directly at it, just as one would look at the front of a building.

This elevation is taken looking at the front of the sink as the arrow points. An elevation might as properly have been taken looking at the end of the sink, as the dotted arrow points. There are cer tain reasons, however, why the elevation which we show gives a better view than the other. If the elevation had been taken from the end of the sink, it will

be noticed that the waste and vent lines would have come one in front of the other instead of side by side as the front elevation shows, and the trap and its back air pipe would not have shown broadside to us, as Fig. 19 represents.

Therefore, in this work, the layout of the work should be sized up first, and such an elevation chosen as will show the work to best advantage. There is another point to be observed from Figs. 18 and 19.

When drawn on the same scale as these two views are, and should be when possible, similar measurements taken on each should agree with each other: For instance, measure from the end of the lower drip board in the plan to the center of the vent line, and take the same measurement on the elevation. The two measurements will be found to be the same.

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CHAPTER IV.
E have already stated, there on his own line of work that he can look

are two views of any pro- to for help.
posed piece of work that Indeed, in a great many cases he does

the plumber will need, if not need any further help. On the other the work is to be shown fully. hand, in a great many cases there is These views are known as the plan abundant use for a special drawing on and the elevation, and each is equal- the plumbing work of a building, and ly valuable. The plan is sometimes called such a thing would often be of service the top view, that is to say, this view, by to the plumber and to the architect and whichever term it may be known, is ob- owner as well. If the architect had to tained by looking down upon the object work out in a drawing the way in which or the work, that is to be shown. Now the different pipes, vent and waste would in Figs. 20, 21, 22, and 23, we show draw- have to run, it would be the means of ings for an ordinary cottage house, such his giving more attention to the location

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Fig. 20—Showing Cellar Plan. Scale Y8-inch to 1 foot. as are usually drawn up by the architect of his fixtures, the laying out of bath having the work in charge, and such, no rooms, the running of floor timbers, etc.. doubt, as most of our readers are entire- and as a result, the plumber would find ly familiar with.

himself able to put in his work to better These views are what the plumber us- advantage, with less cutting, etc., than ually figures his work from, and as a he is usually able to do under present general thing he has no further drawing existing and undesirable conditions.

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Fig. 21—Showing Bathroom Connections on Second Floor. Scale 18-inch to 1 foot. one that will almost always be required tically, and as may readily be seen, these when drawings of the plumbing work are ends will appear circular. Now when desired.

we come to study the first and second That two stacks that pass up through floor plans, each gives, or should give,

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Fig. 22-Showing First Floor Plan. Scale 18-inch to 1 foot. the house, and through the roof, are the location of all fixtures on that particshown in this view or in any other plan ular floor, also the location of any stacks view by circles, for in looking down on that may pass up through said floor.

In comparing these floor plans with Now if any of our readers wish to enthe cellar plan, if it is found that the large these plans as we have suggested, position of the stack as the circle shows and draw them on a larger scale, it can

s located directly over its position in easily be done. If it is desired to make the cellar, it is clear that the pipe runs the drawings four times the size shown vertically without offset.

by us, they would then be on a scale of If the positions do not show this, but 12 inch to the foot, and every measureit is found that the locations vary, then ment on our drawings would have to be we know that there is an offset.

It would be first-class practice for any one following these articles, to take the set of plans which we illustrate, and work out the same on a larger scale, or better still, to change the layout and locate the stacks in their proper positions on the several floors.

The drawing of a cellar plan, with the pipes showing, as we submit in Fig. 20, is especially desirable work for the beginner, and not too difficult for him. We therefore suggest that he give particular attention to perfecting that view. It will be noticed that these four views are each drawn on a scale of 18 inch to the foot. To those who do not understand clearly what is meant by a scale drawing, we would make the following explanation: It is obviously impossible to lay out any view of an object of as large size as a house in its actual size. In this event, it is customary to choose some certain measurement, and let such measurement on the drawing represent some larger measurement on the object itself. Thus, in these floor plans, if we find a certain measurement to be 5/8 inch, we know from the scale that we are using, that the same measurement on the house itself is 5 feet. Various scales are in use, depending on the size of the building usually.

On ordinary work, the scale generally used is 14 inch to the foot. On large work 18 inch to the foot is common. This brings to mind the fact that in working or figuring from plans care

Fig. 23—Showing Elevation. Scale 18-ln. to Ift. must be taken to do such work with the made four times as large in the new scale that the drawings are made on. drawing. The writer has heard several times of Fig. 23 we have scarcely referred to people who have made such a mistake as yet. It represents a very simple eleas figuring the work from plans drawn vation of the house shown in plan on the on a 18 inch scale at 14 inch scale, thus three other views, and is not meant to figuring only one-half the necessary represent in any way, the finished elevalengths of pipes a fifty per cent. loss. tion that the architect usually prepares.

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