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P R E F A CE.
the Antiquities of our Country is allowed to be a laudalle Curiosity: to point them out therefore to the Inquisitive, and to direct their Attention to these Things that best deserve Notice, cannot be denied its Degree of Merit.
The Tower of London, for the antique Reo mains that are there treasured up, has been, for many Ages past, the common Resort of Foreigner's, as well as Natives; but it is a general Complaint, that the Mind, being crouded with too many Objeits at once, cannot diftinguish, amid ja great a Variety, what is worthy to be dwilt upon, and what is of lefs Note; and the Hurry with which Strangers are conducted by their Guides from one Curiosity to another, occafioned by the Numbers that are hourly flocking there to be entertained, leaves the Spectator no Time to examine what he sees, nor to fix in his Memory half the Objects that have attracted his Attention. To remove this Complaint therefore, and to enable every perfon to recollect with Advantage whatever is worthy to be remembered, this little Book is now offered to the Public; which, in other respects likewise, will not be wholly without its Use; for by comparing, as the Reader has here an Opportunity of doing, the traditional Stories of the Guides, with the historical Faets to which they
relate, he will be naturally led to imprint this use. ful Observation strongly in his Mind, how little he ought to trust to Memory in Things that are of Importance enough to be remembered, and how careful to commit to Writing all his Concerns that on any future Occasion he would wish to recollect.
It would be impertinent to trouble the Reader with a long Preface on a Subject, that to some may appear immaterial; wo shall conclude therefore with observing, that Pains have been taken to examine every Fact to which the Traditions at the Tower have any Allufion; to illufrate them where they are obfcure; to suppley them where they are defective ; and to correct them where they are mifrepresented. And, besides, we have introduced Anecdotes, pertinent to the Subjelt, wherever Opportunity offered, in order to render the whole enter. taining as well as useful.
TOWER OF LONDON.
THE Foundation of the Tower of Lon.
don, according to the moft authentic Re.
cords, was marked out, and that part of the building called the White Tower erected by William the Conqueror in the year 1076, with a view, no doubt, to secure to himself and his followers a safe retreat, in case of any surprize from the English, while he was employed in setting the Government of his new conquests.
That this was his design in building the Tower, appears from its situation, its extent, and its communication with the river banes, from whence it might be supplied with all kinds of succours of men, provisions, and military ftores. But how it could command the city, the bridge, and the river, so early as William the Conqueror's time, before the use of guns, as authors of good credit have afferted, I must own, I cannot comprehend; and, I believe,whoever views it attentively, even in its present circumstances, will agree with me, that it was rather planned for a place of defence than offence. But to wave conjectures. The death of the Conquerorin 1088, about eight years after this fortrefs was begun, put aftop to the progress of the work for a while, and left the completion of it to that great genius in geometrical knowledge William Rufus, fon
to William the Conqueror, who in 1098 surrounded it with walls, and fortified it with a broad and deep ditch. Since his time indeed, the number of buildings within the walls has been gradually and greatly increased, so that it feems now rather a town than a fortress. It should be remarked, that this last mentioned, Monarch built Wilminlter Hall, also at that time the adıniration of all Eu ope.
The Tower, as it is now fortified with cannon, is perhaps the best cholen situation for such a fortress of any in the world. It lies to the Eastward of London, near enough to cover that opulent city from invasion by water, being 8c0 yards only from the bridge; and to the north of the river Thames, from which it is parted by a narrow ditch, and a convenient wharf, to which it has a communication by a draw-bridge, for the readier issuing and receive ing aminunition, and naval or military stores. On this wharf, there is lately made a long and beautiful platform, on which are planted 61 pieces of cannon, mounted on new and very elegant iron carriages. The pieces of ordnance are chiefly used to fire on days of state, or to promulgate any joyful news to the public. Parallel to the wharf, within the walls, is a platform 70 yards in length, called the Ladies Line, because much frequented by the Ladies in the summer, as within it is shaded with a lofty row of trees, and without it has a delightful prospect of the Thipping, with boats passing and repaffing on the river I bam?s. You ascend this line by stone steps, and being once upon it you may walk alınost round the walls of the Tower without interruption, and in your course will pass threc batteries, the first called the Devil's Battery, where is also a platform, on which are
mounted seven pieces of cannon, tho' on the battery itself are only five; the next is called the Stone Battery, and is defended by eight pieces of cannon; and the tliird and last is called the Wooden Battery, mounted with fix pieces of cannon: all these are nine-pounders, · The principal entrance into the Tower is by a gate to the west, large enough to admit coaches and heavy carriages; but these are first admitted thro' an outer gate, and must pass a stout stone bridge, built over the ditch, before they can approach the main entrance. There is besides an entrance for persons on foot, over the drawbridge already mentioned, to the wharf, which wharf is only divided from the main land by gates at each end, opened every day at a certain hour for the convenience of a free intercourse between the respective inhabitants of the Tower, the city, and its suburbs. There is also a watergate, commonly called Iraitors Gate, thro' which it has been customary to convey traitors, and other state prisoners, to or from the Tower, perhaps for greater privacy, and which is seldom opened on any other occasion; but the Lords, committed to the Tower on account of the rebellion in 1745, were publicly admitted at the main entrance. Over this gate is a regular building, terininated at each end by two baftions, or round towers, on which are embrasures for pointing cannon, but there are at prefent none mounted. In this building are placed the infirmary, the mill, and water-works that supply the Tower with water.
Great ceremony is used atopening and shutting the principal gate night and morning. A little before fix in the morning in summer, and as Toon as it is light in the winter, the yeoman porter goes to the govenor's house for the keys, A 4