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The arful condition

CHAP. II.

of corrupt teachers. A. M. cir. 4064.

cannot cease from sin; beguiling 16 But was rebuked for his A.M. cir. 4064. A. D. cir. 60.

A. D. cir. 60. An. Olymp.

unstable souls: * an heart they iniquity: the dumb ass, speak- An. Olymp. cir. CCIS. 4.

cir. CCIX.'4. A.U.C. cir. 813. have exercised with covetous ing with man's voice, forbad

A.U.C. cir. 813. practices; cursed children: the madness of the prophet. 15 Which have forsaken the right way, and 17 These are wells without water, clouds are gone astray, following the way of Balaam that are carried with a tempest; to whom the the son of Bosor, who loved the wages of un- mist of darkness is reserved for ever. righteousness;

18 For when they speak great swelling

a Jude 11.-b Numb. xxii. 5, 7, 21, 23, 28. Jude 11.

c Jude 12, 13. — Jude 16.

Cannot cease from sin] Which cease not from sin; to the speech of the ass, as represented in the Tarthey might cease from sin, but they do not; they gums of Jonathan ben Uzziel and Jerusalem ? “Woe love and practise it. Instead of ακατάπαυστους, , to thee, Balaam, thou sinner, thou madman; there is thich cannot cease, several MSS. and Versions have no wisdom found in thee.” These words contain akaranavorov, and this requires the place to be read, nearly the same expressions as those in St. Peter. Haring eyes full of adultery, and of incessant sin.

Verse 17. These are wells without water] Persons The images of sinful acts were continually floating who, by their profession, should furnish the water of before their disordered and impure fancy. This life to souls athirst for salvation ; but they have not figure of speech is very common in the Greek writers ; this water; they are teachers without ability to inand Kypke gives many instances of it, which indeed struct; they are souers, and have no seed in their carry the image too far to be here translated.

basket. Nothing is more cheering in the deserts of Beguiling unstable souls] The metaphor is taken the East than to meet with a well of water ; and from adulterers seducing unwary, inexperienced, and nothing more distressing, when parched with Hirst, light, trifling women; so do those false teachers seduce than to meet with a well that contains no water. those who are not established in righteousness.

Clouds that are carried with a tempest] In a time Exercised with covetous practices] The metaphor of great drought, to see clouds beginning to cover the s taken from the Agonista in the Grecian games, face of the heavens raises the expectation of rain ; who exercised themselves in those feats, such as

but to see these carried off by a sudden tempest is a vrestling, boxing, running, &c., in which they pro- dreary disappointment. These false teachers were posed to contend in the public games. These persons equally as un profitable as the empty well, or the jad their hearts schooled in nefarious practices; they light, dissipated cloud. iad exercised themselves till they were perfectly expert in all the arts of seduction, over-reaching, and every is, an eternal separation from the presence of God,

To whom the mist of darkness is reserved] That kind of fraud. Cursed children] Such not only live under God's and the glory of his power. They shall be thrust

into outer darkness, Matt. viii. 12; into the utmost curse here, but they are heirs to it hereafter. Verse 15. Which have forsaken the right way] As teachers will be sent into the lowest hell; and be

degrees of misery and despair. False and corrupt Balaam did, who, although God slowed him the

“the most downcast, underfoot vassals of perdition.” right way, took one contrary to it, preferring the reward offered him by Balak to the approbation and

It is scarcely necessary to notice a various reading blessing of God.

here which, though very different in sound, is

Instead of veprdai, clouds, The way of Balaam] Is the counsel of Balaam. nearly the same in sense. He counselled the Moabites to give their most which is the common reading, kai opuxtai, and mists, beautiful young women to the Israelitish youth, that or perhaps more properly thick darkness, from ópov, they might be enticed by them to commit idolatry. together, and axlus, darkness, is the reading in ABC, See the notes on Numb. xxii. 5, &c., and xxiii. i, sixteen others, Erpen’s Arabic, later Syriac, Coptic, &c.

Æthiopic, and Vulyate, and several of the Fathers. The son of Bosor] Instead of Bogop, Bosor, two This reading Griesbach has admitted into the text. ancient MSS. and some of the Versions have Bewp, Verse 18. They speak great swelling words of vanity] Beor, to accommodate the word to the Hebrew text The word 'nepoyka signifies things of great magnitude, and the Septuagint. The difference in this name grand, superb, sublime; it sometimes signifies inflated, seems to have arisen from mistaking one letter for tumid, bombastic. These false teachers spoke of great Hebrew name

and high things, and no doubt promised their disciples Betsor or Bosor ; tsaddi y and ain y, which are very the greatest privileges, as they themselves pretended like each other, being interchanged.

to a high degree of illumination ; but they were all Verse 16. The dumb ass, speaking with man's voice] false and vain, though they tickled the fancy and See the note on Numb. xxi. 28.

excited the desires of the flesh; and indeed this The madness of the prophet.] is not this a reference appears to have been their object. And hence some

A. M. cir. 4064.
A. D. cir. 60.

The dreadful state of

II. PETER.

backsliders and apostates. words of vanity, they allure they are again entangled therein A. M. cir: 4064

A. D. cir. 60. An. Olymp. through the lusts of the flesh, and overcome, the latter end

An. Olyan cir. CCIX. 4.

cir. CCİX: 4. A.U.C. cir. 813. through much wantonness, those is worse with them than the

A.U.C.cir. 813. that a were clean escaped from beginning. them who live in error.

21 For hit had been better for them not to 19 While they promise them "liberty, they have known the way of righteousness, than, themselves are the servants of corruption : after they have known it, to turn from the for of whom a man is overcome, of the same holy commandment delivered unto them. is he brought in bondage.

22 But it is happened unto them according 20 For if after they have escaped the to the true proverb, i The dog is turned to pollutions of the world, through the know- his own vomit again, and the sow that was ledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, washed to her wallowing in the mire.

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a Acts ii. 40. Ch. i. 4. Ver. 20.- Lo Or, for a little ; or, 26. Hebr. vi. 4, &c. X. 26, 27.- Ch. i. 4. Ver. It! a while, as some read. «Gal. v. 13. 1 Pet. ii. 16. 8 Ch. i. 2. .b Luke xii. 47, 48. John ix, 41. I.2. d John viji. 34. Rom. vi, 16.- -e Matt. xii. 45. Luke xi. i Prov. xxvi. 11.

think that the impure sect of the Nicolaitans is meant. scended from heaven.” Now, it is by the knowledg: See the preface.

of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, as says S. Those that were clean escaped] Those who, through Peter, that we escape the destructive influence of hearing the doctrines of the gospel, had been con- these contagious miasmata. But if, after having been verted, were perverted by those false teachers. healed, and escaped the death to which we were ei

Verse 19. While they promise them liberty] Either posed, we get again entangled, euplakettes, enfolded, to live in the highest degrees of spiritual good, or a enveloped with them; then the latter end will be wors freedom from the Roman yoke; or from the yoke of than the beginning : forasmuch as we shall have sitthe law, or what they might term needless restraints. ned against more light, and the soul, by its conrerTheir own conduct showed the falsity of their system; sion to God, having had all its powers and faculties for they were slaves to every disgraceful lust. greatly improved, is now, being repolluted, more ca

For of whom a man is overcome] This is an allu- pable of iniquity than before, and can bear mix sion to the ancient custom of selling for slaves those expressively the image of the earthly. whom they had conquered and captivated in war. Verse 21. For it had been better for them nu ta The ancient law was, that a man might either kill have known] For the reasons assigned above; behim whom he overcame in battle, or keep him for a cause they have sinned against more mercy, are exslave. These were called servi, slaves, from the verb pable of more sin, and are liable to greater punish. servare, to keep or preserve. And they were also ment. called mancipia, from manu capiuntur, they are The holy commandment] The whole religion of taken captive by the hand of their enemy. Thus the Christ is contained in this one commandment, “The person who is overcome by his lusts is represented as shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with al being the slave of those lusts. See Rom. vi. 16, and thy soul, with all thy mind, and with all thy strength; the note there.

and thy neighbour as thyself.” He who obets this Verse 20. The pollutions of the world] Sin in great commandment, and this by the grace of Christ's general, and particularly superstition, idolatry, and possible to every man, is saved from sinning either lasciviousness. These are called praquara, miasmata, against his God or against his neighbour. Nothing things that infect, pollute, and defile. The word was less than this does the religion of Christ require. anciently used, and is in use at the present day, to Verse 22. According to the true proverb] This seems express those noxious particles or effluvia proceed to be a reference to Prov. xxvi. 11 : 7p by JT 3:03 ing from persons infected with contagious and dan- kekeleb shab al keo ; as the dog returneth to his event, gerous diseases; or from dead and corrupt bodies, so a fool repeateth his folly. In substance this prorero stagnant and putrid waters, marshes, &c., by which is found among the rabbins: so Midrash Ruth, in the sound and healthy may be infected and destroyed. Sohar Chadash, fol. 62: Orphah is returned to her

The world is here represented as one large putrid mire, Ruth persevered in spirit ; and again, Ibid. fol. marsh, or corrupt body, sending off its destructive 64: “Orphah, which is ranan vÐI nephesh habbekemiti, miasmata every where and in every direction, so that the bestial soul, is returned to her mire.” none can escape its contagion, and none can be The Greeks have something like it; so Arržan, healed of the great epidemic disease of sin, but by Dissert. Epict. l. iv., c. 11, says: A TEABE ka yotepa the mighty power and skill of God. St. Augustine dialeyov, iv' ev Bopßopu un kvaintai, " Go and reason has improved on this image :! “The whole world,” with the swine, lest he be rolled in the mire." This says he, “is one great diseased man, lying extended is called a true proverb : for it is a fart, that a dog from east to west, and from north to south ; and to will eat up his own vomit; and a swine, howsoever heal this great sick man, the Almighty Physician de carefully washed, will again wallow in the mire. As

Scoffers, in the last days,

CHAP. III.

foretold and described. applied here it is very expressive: the poor sinner, , their formerly rejected lusts, and re-wallowed in the having heard the gospel of Christ, was led to loathe mire of corruption. It is no wonder that God should and reject his sin; and, on his application to God for say, the latter end is worse with them than the beginmercy, was washed from his unrighteousness. But he ning: reason and nature say it must be so ; and divine is here represented as taking up again what he had justice says it ought to be so; and the person himself before rejected, and defiling himself in that from must confess that it is right that it should be so. which he had been cleansed,

But how dreadful is this state! How dangerous when Here is a sad proof of the possibility of falling from the person has abandoned himself to his old sins! Yet grace, and from very high degrees of it too. These it is not said that it is impossible for him to return to had escaped from the contagion that was in the world ; his Maker; though his case be deplorable, it is not they had had true repentance, and cast up “their sour- utterly hopeless; the leper may yet be made clean, sweet morsel of sin;” they had been washed from all and the dead may be raised. Reader, is thy backtheir filthiness, and this must have been through the sliding a grief and burden to thee? Then thou art blood of the Lamb; yet, after all, they went back, not far from the kingdom of God; believe on the got entangled with their old sins, swallowed down | Lord Jesus, and thou shalt be saved.

CHAPTER III. - The apostle shows his design in writing this and the preceding epistle, 1, 2. Describes the

nature of the heresies which should take place in the last times, 3–8. A thousand years with the Lord are but as a day, 9. He will come and judge the world as he has promised, and the heavens and the earth shall be burnt up, 10. How those should live who expect these things, 11, 12. Of the new heavens and the new earth, and the necessity of being prepared for this great change, 13, 14. Concerning some difficult things in St. Paul's epistles, 15, 16. We must watch against the error of the wicked, grow in grace, and give all glory to God, 17, 18. A.D.C.466. THIS second epistle, be- | phets, and of the command- A. M. cir. 4064. An. Olymp.

loved, I now write unto ment of us the apostles of the An. Olymp: cir. CCİX: 4.

cir. CCIX.'4. A.U.C. cir. 813. you; in both which “I stir up Lord and Saviour :

A.U.C. cir. 813. your pure minds by way of 3 ° Knowing this first, that remembrance :

there shall come in the last days scoffers, 2 That ye may be mindful of the words walking after their own lusts, which were spoken before by the holy pro- 4 And saying, Where is the promise of his

A. D. cir. 60.

*Ch. i. 13.b Jude 17.

-ul Tim, iv. 1. 2 Tim. ii. 1.

Jude 18.

d C. ii. 10.- Le Isai. v. 19. Jer. xvii. 15. Ezek, xii.

22, 27. Matt. xxiv. 48. Loke xii. 45.

NOTES ON CHAP. III.

the most likely way to depreciate truth in the sight Verse 1. This second epistle] In order to guard of the giddy multitude. The scoffers, having no solid them against the seductions of false teachers, he calls argument to produce against revelation, endeavour to to their remembrance the doctrine of the ancient make a scaramouch of some parts; and then affect to prophets, and the commands or instructions of the laugh at it, and get superficial thinkers to laugh with apostles, all founded on the same basis.

them. He possibly refers to the prophecies of Enoch, as Walking after their own lusts] Here is the true mentioned by Jude, ver. 14, 15; of David, Ps. I. 1, source of all infidelity. The gospel of Jesus is pure &c.; and of Daniel, xii. 2, relative to the coming of and holy, and requires a holy heart and holy life. our Lord to judgment: and he brings in the instruc- They wish to follow their own lusts, and consetions of the apostles of Christ, by which they were quently cannot brook the restraints of the gospel : directed how to prepare to meet their God.

therefore they labour to prove that it is not true, Verse 3. Knowing this first] Considering this in that they may get rid of its injunctions, and at last an especial manner, that those prophets predicted the succeed in persuading themselves that it is a forgery ; coming of false teachers: and their being now in the and then throw the reins on the neck of their evil church proved how clearly they were known to God, propensities. Thus their opposition to revealed truth and showed the Christians at Pontus the necessity of began and ended in their own lusts. having no intercourse or connexion with them. There is a remarkable addition here in almost every

There shall come--scoffers] Persons who shall en- MS. and Version of note: There shall come in the last deavour to turn all religion into ridicule, as this is days, IN MOCKERY, tv eutralyzovy, scoffers walking They will call in question

II. PETER. the threatened judgments of God. coming? for since the fathers that by the word of God the A. M. cir. 4164, A.D. cir. 60.

A. D. cir. 60. An. Olymp. fell asleep, all things continue heavens were of old, and the

An. Olymp: cir. CCIX. 4.

cir. CCIX.4. A.U.C. cir. 813. as they were from the beginning earthstanding out of the

A. U.C.cir.813. of the creation.

water and in the water : 5 For this they willingly are ignorant of, 6 d Whereby the world that then was, being

Lb Gr.

A Gen. i. 6, 9. Ps. xxxiii. 6. Hebr. xi. 3. consisting. -c Ps. xxiv. 2. cxxxvi. 6. Col. i. 17.

a Gen. vii. 11, 21, 22, 23. Ch.ü.5.

after their own lusts. This is the reading of ABC, of the remotest antiquity that the earth was formed eleven others, both the Syriac, all the Arabic, Coptic, out of water, or a primitive moisture which they Æthiopic, Vulgate, and several of the Fathers. They termed üln, hulé, a first matter or nutriment for come in mockery ; this is their spirit and temper; things; but Thales pointedly taught apxnv èe pur they have no desire to find out truth; they take up παντων υδωρ ειναι, that all things derive their eristener the Bible merely with the design of turning it into from water, and this very nearly expresses the sentiridicule. This reading Griesbach has received into ment of Peter, and nearly in his own terms too. But the text.

is this doctrine true ? It must be owned that it apThe last days] Probably refer to the conclusion pears to be the doctrine of Moses : In the beginning, of the Jewish polity, which was then at hand. says he, God made the heavens and the earth; and the

Verse 4. Where is the promise of his coming ?] earth was without form and void ; and darkness tti Perhaps the false teachers here referred to were such upon the face of the deep. Now, these heavens and as believed in the eternity of the world: the prophets earth which God made in the beginning, and which and the apostles had foretold its destruction, and he says were at first formless and empty, and which they took it for granted, if this were true, that the he calls the deep, are in the very next verse called terrestrial machine would have begun long ago to have waters ; from which it is evident that Moses teache: shown some symptoms of decay; but they found that the earth was made out of some fluid substane. that since the patriarchs died all things remained as to which the name of water is properly given. And they were from the foundation of the world ; that is, that the earth was at first in a fiuid mass is most men were propagated by natural generation, one evident from its form ; it is not round, as has bein was born and another died, and the course of nature demonstrated by measuring some degrees near the continued regular in the seasons, succession of day north pole, and under the equator; the resulté and night, generation and corruption of animals and which proved that the figure of the earth was that vegetables, &c.; for they did not consider the power of an oblate spheroid, a figure nearly resembling tha: of the Almighty, by which the whole can be anni- of an orange. And this is the form that any soft e hilated in a moment, as well as created. As, there- elastic body would assume if whirled rapidly round fore, they saw none of these changes, they presumed a centre, as the earth is around its axis. The mezthat there would be none, and they intimated that surement to which I have referred shows the eart there never had been any. The apostle combats this to be flatted at the poles, and raised at the equatir. notion in the following verse.

And by this measurement it was demonstrated that Verse 5. For this they willingly are ignorant of] the diameter of the earth at the equator was greater They shut their eyes against the light, and refuse all by about twenty-five miles than at the poles. evidence ; what does not answer their purpose they Now, considering the earth to be thus formed & will not know. And the apostle refers to a fact that vờatos, of water, we have next to consider what the militates against their hypothesis with which they apostle means by di' vòaros, variously translated is refused to acquaint themselves; and their ignorance out of, by means of, and between, the water. he attributes to their unwillingness to learn the true Standing out of the water gives no sense, and shouk state of the case.

be abandoned. If we translate between the waters, it By the word of God the heavens were of old] I shall will bear some resemblance to Gen. i. 6,7: And God set down the Greek text of this extremely difficult said, let there be a firmament in the midst of, Tit clause: Ovpavol noav ertalai, kai yn eg vôatos kai ci' bethoch, between, the waters; and let it diride the vdaroc ouvertwoa, Tu tov Orov doyus translated thus by waters from the waters : and God divided the scraters Mr. Wakefield: A heaven and an earth formed out which were under the firmament from the waters tchich of water, and by means of water, by the appointment were above the firmament ; then it may refer to the of God, had continued from old time.” By Dr. Mac- whole of the atmosphere, with which the earth is knight thus: “ The heavens were anciently, and the every where surrounded, and which contains all the earth of water; and through water the earth consists vapours which belong to our globe, and without by the word of God.” By Kypke thus: “ The heavens which we could neither have animal por vegetative were of old, and the earth, which is framed, by the life. Thus then the earth, or terraqueous giore, word of God, from the waters, and between the which was originally formed out of water, subsises waters.” However we take the words, they seem to by water; and by means of that very trater, the refer to the origin of the earth. It was the opinion water compacted with the earth—the fountains of the

A. D. cir. 60.

A.U.C. cir. 813.

The earth is preserved from water CHAP. III.

to be destroyed by fire. A. M. cit. 4064. overflowed with water,perished: 9 • The Lord is not slack con

A. M. cir. 4064. A.D. cir. 60. An Olymp

7 But the heavens and the cerning his promise, as some An. Olymp. cir. CCLX. 4.

cir. CCIX. 4. A.C.C. cir. 8]3.

earth which are now, by the men count slackness; but is

same word are kept in store, long-suffering to us-ward, not reserved unto bfire against the day of judg- willing that any should perish, but & that all ment and perdition of ungodly men.

should come to repentance. 8 But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one 10 But h the day of the Lord will come as thing, that one day is with the Lord as a a thief in the night; in the which i the thousand years, and a thousand years as one heavens shall pass away with a great noise, day.

and the elements shall melt with fervent heat;

a Ver. 10.- b Matt. xxv.41. 2 Thess. i. 8.- LcPs. xc.4. • Hab. ii. 3. Hebr. x. 37. Le Isai. xxx. 18. 1 Pet. iii. 20. Ver. 15.--Ezek. xviii, 23, 32. xxxiii. 11. Rom. ii. 4. 1 Tim. ii. 4. - Matt. xxiv. 43. Luke xü, 39. 1 Thess.

v. 2.

Rev. iii. 3. xvi. 15.
Matt. xxiv. 35. Mark xiii, 31.
Rev, xx. 11. xxi, 1.

· Ps. cii. 26. Isai. li. 6. Rom. viii. 20. Hebr. i. ll.

great deep, and the waters in the atmospherethe life with eternity, we shall find no difference between tindows of heaven, Gen. vii. 11, the antediluvian long and short. Ta yap xedia, kai ta pvpia ern, otiyun earth was destroyed, as St. Peter states in the next τις εστιν αοριστος, μαλλον δε μοριον τι βραχυτατον verse: the terraqueous globe, which was formed otiying for a thousand or ten thousand years are originally of water or a fluid substance, the chaos but a certain indefinite point, or rather the smallest or first matter, and which was suspended in the part of a point.The words of the apostle seem to heavens—the atmosphere, enveloped with water, by be a quotation from Ps. xc. 4. means of which water it was preserved; yet, because Verse 9. The Lord is not slack] They probably in of the wickedness of its inhabitants, was destroyed their mocking said, “ Either God had made no such by those very same waters out of which it was promise to judge the world, destroy the earth, and originally made, and by which it subsisted.

send ungodly men to perdition; or if he had, he had Verse 7. But the heavens and the earth, which are forgotten to fulfil it, or had not convenient time or now] The present earth and its atmosphere, which leisure.” To some such mocking the apostle seems to are liable to the same destruction, because the same refer; and he immediately shows the reason why means still exist (for there is still water enough to deserved punishment is not inflicted on a guilty drown the earth, and there is iniquity enough to in- world. duce God to destroy it and its inhabitants), are never- But is long-suffering] It is not slackness, remisstheless kept in store, reoncavpiouevol, treasured up, ness, nor want of due displicence at sin, that induced kept in God's storehouse, to be destroyed, not by God to prolong the respite of ungodly men ; but his water, but by fire at the day of judgment.

long-suffering, his unwillingness that any should perish: From all this it appears that those mockers affected and therefore he spared them, that they might have to be ignorant of the Mosaic account of the formation additional offers of grace, and be led to repentance-to of the earth, and of its destruction by the waters of deplore their sins, implore God's mercy, and find rethe deluge ; and indeed this is implied in their demption through the blood of the Lamb. stating that all things continued as they were from the As God is not willing that any should perish, and creation. But St. Peter calls them back to the as he is willing that all should come to repentance, Mosaic account, to prove that this was false ; for the consequently he has never devised nor decreed the earth, &c., which were then formed, had perished by damnation of any man, nor has he rendered it imposthe flood; and that the present earth, &c., which sible for any soul to be saved, either by necessitating were formed out of the preceding, should, at the him to do evil, that he might die for it, or refusing day of judgment, perish by the fire of God's wrath. him the means of recovery, without which he could

Verse 8. Be not ignorant] Though they are wil- not be saved. ally ignorant, neglect not ye the means of in- Verse 10. The day of the Lord will comej See =truction.

Matt. xxiv. 43, to which the apostle seems to allude. One day is with the Lord as a thousand years] That The heavens shall pass away with a great noise] As S: All time is as nothing before him, because in the the heavens mean here, and in the passages above, presence as in the nature of God all is eternity; the whole atmosphere, in which all the terrestrial herefore nothing is long, nothing short, before him; vapours are lodged; and as water itself is composed o lapse of ages impairs his purposes, nor need he of two gases, eighty-five parts in weight of oxygen, rait to find convenience to execute those purposes. and fifteen of hydrogen, or two parts in volume of And when the longest period of time has passed by, it the latter, and one of the former (for if these quans but as a moment or indivisible point in comparison tities be put together, and several electric sparks -f eternity. This thought is well expressed by Plu- passed through them, a chemical union takes place, ARCH, Consol. ad Apoll.: “If we compare the time of and water is the product; and, vice versa, if the gal

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