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Observations on


the preceding chapter

. what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ degrees below the horizon day-break commences, which was in them did signify, when it testified before- as the rays of light begin then to diffuse themselves hand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that in our atmosphere, by which they are reflected upon should follow. See 1 Pet. i. 11, 12, and the notes the earth. By this means a whole hemisphere is there.

enlightened, though but in a partial degree; yet

this, increasing every moment, as the sun approaches 1. As the writer of this epistle asserts that he was the horizon, prepares for the full manifestation of his on the holy mount with Christ when he was trans- resplendent orb: so the ministry of John Baptist, figured, he must be either Peter, James, or John, for and the initiatory ministry of Christ himself, prepared there was no other person present on that occasion the primitive believers for his full manifestation on except Moses and Elijah, in their glorious bodies. the day of Pentecost and afterwards. Here the sun The epistle was never attributed to James nor John ; rose in his strength, bringing light, heat, and life to but the uninterrupted current, where its divine in- all the inhabitants of the earth. So far, then, as a spiration was granted, gave it to Peter alone. See lanthorn carried in a dark night differs from and is the preface.

inferior to the beneficial effects of day-break, and 2. It is not unfrequent for the writers of the New the full light and heat of a meridian sun ; so far wa Testament to draw a comparison between the Mosaic the Mosaic dispensation, in its beneficial effects, in

ferior to the Christian dispensation. and Christian dispensations; and the comparison generally shows that, glorious as the former was, it 3. Perhaps there is scarcely any point of view in had no glory in comparison of the glory that excel- which we can consider prophecy which is so satileth. St. Peter seems to touch here on the same factory and conclusive as that which is here stated; point; the Mosaic dispensation, with all the light of that is, far from inventing the subject of their owa prophecy by which it was illustrated, was only as a predictions, the ancient prophets did not even knoe lamp shining in a dark place. There is a propriety the meaning of what themselves wrote. They were and delicacy in this image that are not generally carried beyond themselves by the influence of the noticed: a lamp in the dark gives but a very small divine Spirit, and after ages were alone to discover portion of light, and only to those who are very near the object of the prophecy; and the fulfilment was to it; yet it always gives light enough to make itself to be the absolute proof that the prediction was di visible, even at a great distance; though it enlightens God, and that it was of no private invention-D not the space between it and the beholder, it is still discovery made by human sagacity and wisdom, but literally the lamp shining in a dark place. Such was by the especial revelation of the all-wise God. This the Mosaic dispensation ; it gave a little light to the is sufficiently evident in all the prophecies which Jews, but shone not to the Gentile world, any farther have been already fulfilled, and will be equally a than to make itself visible. This is compared with in those yet to be fulfilled; the events will point out the gospel under the emblem of day-break, and the the prophecy, and the prophecy will be seen to be rising of the sun. When the sun is even eighteen ' fulfilled in that event.


False teachers foretold, who shall bring in destructive doctrines and shall pervert mara,

but at last be destroyed by the judgments of God, 1–3. Instances of God's judgment in the rebellious angels, 4. In the antediluvians, 5. In the cities of Sodom cuð Gomorrha, 6–8. The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly, as well as to punish ungodly, 9. The character of those seducing teachers and their disciples ; they are unclean, presumptuous, speak evil of dignities, adulterous, covetous, and cursed, 10–14. Have forsaken the right way, copy the conduct of Balaam, speak great swelling ecords

, and pervert those who had escaped from error, 15—19. The miserable state of those üks having escaped the corruption that is in the world, have turned back like the dog to his vomit, and the washed swine to her wallowing in the mire, 20-22.

A. D. cir. 60.

A. D. cir. 60.

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Teachers of heretical


doctrines foretola. A. M. cir. 4064.

a there were false pro-
3 And 5 through covetousness

A. M. cir. 4064 An. Olymp.

phets also among the shall they with feigned words An. Olymp. cir. (CLX. 4.

cir. CCİX: 4. A.U.C. cir. 813. people, even as b there shall be make merchandise of you : A.U.C. cir. 813

false teachers among you, who whose judgment now of a long privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even time lingereth not, and their damnation slum*denying the Lord that bought them, and bereth not. bring upon themselves swift destruction. 4 For if God spared not k the angels 'that 2 And many shall follow their pernicious sinned, but "cast them down to hell, and deways; by reason of whom the way of truth livered them into chains of darkness, to be reshall be evil spoken of.

served unto judgment ;

a Deat. viii, 1. b Matt. xxiv, 11. Acts xx. 30. 1 Cor.

2 Cor. xii, 17, 18. 1 Tim. vi. 5. Tit. i. 11.-h2 Cor. xi. 19. 1 Tim. iv. 1. 2 Tim. iii. 1,5. 1 John iv. l. , Jude i, 17. Ch. i. 16. i Deut. xxxii. 35. Jude 4, 15.

Lk Job 18.

c Jude 4. * 1 Cor. vi. 20. Gal. iii. 13. Eph. i. 7. iv. 18. Jude 6. 1 John viii. 44. 1 John iii, 8.- .m Luke Hebr. x. 29. 1 Pet. i. 18. Rev. v. 9. Le Phil. iii. 19.

viii. 31. Rev. xx. 2, 3. 'Or, lascivious ways, as some copies read. & Rom. xvi. 18.


Pernicious ways] Taig afwletais. Their destrucVerse 1. But there were false prophets ] There tions ; i. e. the heresies of destruction, or destructive were not only holy men of God among the Jews, opinions, mentioned above. But instead of afwletais, who prophesied by divine inspiration, but there were destructions, atelyelais, lasciviousnesses or uncleanalso false prophets, whose prophecies were from their nesses, is the reading of ABC, and upwards of sixty »wn imagination, and perverted many.

others, most of which are among the most ancient, As there shall be false teachers among you] At a correct, and authentic. This is the reading also of 'ery early period of the Christian church many he- both the Syriac, all the Arabic, the Coptic, Æthiopic, esies sprung up; but the chief were those of the Armenian, Slavonic, Vulgate, Chrysostom, TheophyZbionites, Cerinthians, Nicolaitans, Menandrians, and lact, Ecumenius, and Jerome. A very few, and inostics, of whom many strange things have been those of little repute, have the word in the text. poken by the primitive Fathers, and of whose The word lasciviousnesses is undoubtedly the true pinions it is difficult to form any satisfactory view. reading, and this points out what the nature of the They were, no doubt, bad enough, and their oppo- heresies was: it was a sort of Antinomianism; they ents in general have doubtless made them worse. pampered and indulged the lusts of the flesh; and, if y what name those were called of whom the apostle the Nicolaitans are meant, it is very applicable to ere speaks, we cannot tell. They were probably them, for they taught the community of wives, &c. ome sort of apostate Jews, or those called the Nico-Griesbach has received this reading into the text. ditans. See the preface.

By reason of whom] These were persons who proDumnable heresies] · Aipecats arwhetas Heresies of fessed Christianity ; and because they were called estruction ; such as, if followed, would lead a man Christians, and followed such abominable practices, perdition. And these rapeloačovou, they will the way of truththe Christian religion, Blaopnunring in privately-cunningly, without making much Ongetal, was blasphemed. Had they called themoise, and as covertly as possible. It would be selves by any name but that of Christ, his religion etter to translate destructive heresies than damnable. would not have suffered. Denying the Lord that bought them] It is not cer- Verse 3. And through covetousness) That they ain whether God the Father be intended here, or might get money to spend upon their lusts, with ur Lord Jesus Christ; for God is said to have pur- Soigned words, adaotoiç doyous, with counterfeit tales, hased the Israelites, Exod. xv. 16, and to be the false narrations of pretended facts, lying miracles, father that had bought them, Deut. xxxii. 6, and the fabulous legends. “In this single sentence,” says jords may refer to these or such like passages; or Dr. Macknight, “there is a clear prediction of the hey may point out Jesus Christ, who had bought iniquitous practices of those great merchants of souls, hem with his blood; and the heresies, or dangerous the Romish clergy, who have rated all crimes, even pinions, may mean such as opposed the divinity of the most atrocious, at a fixed price; so that if their ur Lord, or his meritorious and sacrificial death, or doctrine be true, whoever pays the price may commit uch opinions as bring upon those who hold them the crime without hazarding his salvation.” How wift destruction. It seems, however, more natural the popish church has made merchandise of souls, o understand the Lord that bought them as applying needs no particular explanation here. It was this o Christ, than otherwise; and if so, this is another abominable doctrine that showed to some, then in proof, among many, 1. That none can be saved but that church, the absolute necessity of a reformation. of Jesus Christ. 2. That through their own Whose judgment now of a long time] From the bewickedness some may perish for whom Christ died. ginning God has condemned sin, and inflicted suitable

Verse 2. Many shall follow] Will follow, be- punishments on transgressors; and has promised in cause determined to gratify their sinful propensities. This word, from the earliest ages, to pour out his inNoah and his family


saved in the ark. A.M. cir. 4064. 5 And spared not the old of righteousness, bringing in A. M. cir. 496.

A. D. cir. 6. A. D. cir. 60. An. Olymp. world, but saved a Noah the the flood upon the world of the

An. Olyınp. cir. CCLX. 4.

cir. CCIX.' 4 A.U.C. cir. 813. eighth person, a preacher ungodly;

A.U.C. cir. 813.


a Gen. vii. 1, 7, 23. Hebr. xi. 7. 1 Pet. iii. 20.

61 Pet. iii. 19.

_c Ch. iii. 6.

dignation on the wicked. The punishment, there- means not, as Mede (Works, fol., p. 23) interprets it, fore, so long ago predicted, shall fall on these impure to adjudge to, but to cast into, Tartarus ; per Tely tes and incorrigible sinners; and the condemnation which Taptapov, as in Homer, cited below. And in order is denounced against them slumbers not—it is alert, to know what was the precise intention of the apastie it is on its way, it is hurrying on, and must soon by this expression, we must inquire what is the aiovertake them.

curate import of the term Ταρταρος. Now, it appear Verse 4. For if God spared not the angels] The from a passage of Lucian, that by Taptapos ma angels were originally placed in a state of probation ; meant, in a physical sense, the bounds or vergeet some having fallen and some having stood proves this material system ; for, addressing himself to ePos this. How long that probation was to last to them, Cupid or Love, he says: Ev yap et afavor ca and what was the particular test of their fidelity, we | κεχυμενης αμορφιας ΤΟ ΠΑΝ εμορφωσας, κ. τ. λ. Τι know not; nor indeed do we know what was their formedst the universe from its confused and charie sin; nor when nor how they fell. St. Jude says state; and, after separating and dispersing the cathey kept not their first estate, but left their own cumfused chaos, in which, as in one common sepak habitation ; which seems to indicate that they got chre, the whole world lay buried, thou drovest it ta discontented with their lot, and aspired to higher the confines or recesses of outer Tartarushonours, or perhaps to celestial domination. The tra

Where iron gates and bars of solid brass dition of their fall is in all countries and in all re

Keep it in durance irrefrangible, ligions, but the accounts given are various and con

And its return prohibit.' tradictory; and no wonder, for we have no direct revelation on the subject. They kept not their first

“ The ancient Greeks appear to have received by estate, and they sinned, is the sum of what we know tradition, an account of the punishment of the 'fala on the subject; and here curiosity and conjecture

angels,' and of bad men after death; and their pea are useless.

did, in conformity I presume with that account, nie But cast them down to hell, and delivered them into

Tartarus the place where the giants who rebeleid chains of darkness] Ama otipais Sopov saprapwoas, against Jupiter, and the souls of the wicked, Fer παρεδωκεν εις κρισιν τετηρημενους: But with chains of

confined. 'Here,' saith Hesiod, Theogon., lin. 794darkness confining them in Tartarus, delivered them 1, the rebellious Titans were bound in perd

chains. over to be kept to judgment; or, sinking them into Tartarus, delivered them over into custody for punishment, Τοσσον ενερθ' υπο γης, όσον ουρανος εστ' απο γαίης, to chains of darkness. Chains of darkness is a highly Ισον

γαρ τ' απο γης ες ΤΑΡΤΑΡΟΝ ηεροεντα. . poetic expression. Darkness binds them on all

*As far beneath the earth as earth from heater; hands ; and so dense and strong is this darkness that

For such the distance thence to Tartarus.' it cannot be broken through; they cannot deliver themselves, nor be delivered by others.

“Which description will very well agree with the As the word Tartarus is found no where else in proper sense of Tartarus, if we take the earth for the the New Testament, nor does it appear in the Septu- centre of the material system, and reckon from a agint, we must have recourse to the Greek writers zenith, or the extremity of the heavens that is die for its meaning. Mr. Parkhurst, under the word

our heads. But as the Greeks imagined the car. Taprapow, has made some good collections from be of a boundless depth, so it must not be disco those writers, which I here subjoin.

bled that their poets speak of Tartarus as a custom “ The Scholiast on Æschylus, Eumen., says: Pin

or gulf in the bowels of it. Thus Hesiod in the same dar relates that Apollo overcame the Python by poem, lin. 119, calls it force; wherefore the earth endeavoured raprapwoai, ΤΑΡΤΑΡΑ Τ' ηεροεντα μυχη χθονος ευρυοδειης. to cast him into Tartarus. Tzetzes uses the same

‘Black Tartarus, within earth's spacious womb." word, taprapow, for casting or sending into Tartarus ; and the compound verb kataraprapovv is found in

"And Homer, Iliad viïi., lin. 13, &c., introduces Apollodorus, in Didymus's Scholia on Homer; in Jupiter threatening any of the gods who should prePhurnutus, De Nat. Deor., p. 11, edit. Gale; and in

sume to assist either the Greeks or the Trojans, tas : the book Ilepi Ilotajwv, which is extant among the he should either come back wounded to heaven, ce de works of Plutarch. And those whom Apollodorus sent to Tartarus. styles καταταρταρωθεντας, he in the Saine breath calls Η μιν έλων ριψω ες ΤΑΡΤΑΡΟΝ ηεροεντα, , pipbevrag eis Taprapov, cast into Tartarus. Thus the

Τηλε μαλ', όχι βαθιστον υπο χθονος εστι βερεθρον, learned Windet, in Pole's Synopsis. We may then, Ενθα σιδηρειαι τε πυλαι, και χαλκεος ουδος, I think, safely assert that raptapwoas, in St. Peter, Τοσσον ενεοθ' αϊδεω, όσον ουρανος εσταπό γαίης.

Sodom and Gomorrha destroyed. CHAP. II.

Lot and his family delivered. A. M. cir. 4064. 6 And, a turning the cities of | 8 (^ For that righteous man

A. M. cir. 4061. A. D. cir. 60.

A. D. cir. 60. An. Olymp.

Sodom and Gomorrha into dwelling among them, in see- An. Olymp. cir. CCLX. 4. ashes, condemned them with an ing and hearing, vexed his right- A.U.c. cir. 813.

cir. CCIX. 4. overthrow, making them an eous soul from day to day with ensample unto those that after should live their unlawful deeds :) ungodly;

9 The Lord knoweth how to deliver the 7 And delivered just Lot, vexed with the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unfilthy conversation of the wicked:

just unto the day of judgment to be punished :

* Gen. xix. 24. Deut. xxix. 23. Jude 7.- Numb. xxvi.

10. Gen. xix. 16. d Wisd. xix. 17.

e Ps. cxix. 139, 158. Ezek, ix. 4.

1 Cor. x, 13.

- Ps. xxxiv. 17, 19.

Or far, O far, from steep Olympus thrown,

the whole that were saved in the ark, viz. Shem Low in the deep Tartarean gulf shall groan. Ham, Japhet, and their three wives, six; Noah's wife That gulf which iron gates and brazen ground seven ; and Noah himself the eighth. The form of Within the earth inexorable bound;

expression, oyooov Nwe, Noah the eighth, i. e. Noah As deep beneath th' infernal centre hurled, and seven more, is most common in the Greek lanAs from that contre to the ethereal world.'

guage. So in Appian, Bell. Pun., p. 12: Tpitos de TOTE

Pope. εν σπηλαιω κρυπτομενος ελαθε, sometimes he the third Where. according to Homer's description, Iliad. viii., cides, Orat. iv., p. 295: Aipedeis eni tovrŲ deratos

(i. e. he with two others) lay hid in a cave. Andoin. 480—1,

avtos, he himself the tenth (i. e. he and nine others) Ουτ' αυγης υπεριoνος ηελιοιο

were chosen to this. See a number of other examples Τερποντ', ουτ' ανεμοισι βαθυς δε τε ΤΑΡΤΑΡΟΣ αμφις. | in Kyphe. No sun e'er gilds the gloomy horrors there,

World of the ungodly] A whole race without GodNo cheerful gales refresh the lazy air,

without any pure worship or rational religion. But murky Tartarus extends around.' Pope. Verse 6. The cities of Sodom and Gomorrha] See

the notes on Gen, xix. for an account of the sin and Ir, in the language of the old Latin poet (cited by Sicero, Tuscul., lib. i., cap. 15),

punishment of these cities.

Making them an ensample] These three words, Ubi rigida constat crassa caligo inferum.

υποδειγμα, παραδειγμα, and δειγμα, are used to express “On the whole, then, taprapovv, in St. Peter, is the the same idea ; though the former may signify an ame as PITTELV ES Taprapov, to throw into Tartarus, example to be shunned, the second an example to be 2 Homer, only rectifying the poet's mistake of followed, and the third a simple exhibition. But these Tartarus being in the bowels of the earth, and re- differences are not always observed. urring to the original sense of that word above ex- Verse 7. Vexed with the filthy conversation] Karalained, which when applied to spirits must be πονουμενον υπο της των αθεσμων εν ασελγεια αναnterpreted spiritually; and thus raptapwoas will otpoons' Being exceedingly pained with the unclean mport that God cast the apostate angels out of his conduct of those lawless persons. What this was, see sresence into that Copos TOV Orotovs, blackness of dark- in the history, Gen. xix., and the notes there. less (2 Pet. ii. 17; Jude, ver. 13), where they will Verse 8. That righteous man dwelling among them) je for ever banished from the light of his countenance, Lot, after his departure from Abraham, A. M. 2081, ind from the beatifying influence of the ever blessed lived at Sodom till A. M. 2107, a space of about l'hree, as truly as a person plunged into the torpid twenty years; and, as he had a righteous soul, he must wundary of this created system would be from the have been tormented with the abominations of that ight of the sun and the benign operations of the mate- people from day to day. rial hearens."

The word ßagavigev, tormented, is not less emBy chains of darkness we are to understand a place phatic than the word katanovovjevov, grievously of darkness and wretchedness, from which it is impos- pained, in the preceding verse, and shows what this sible for them to escape.

man must have felt in dwelling so long among a people Verse 5. Spared not the old world) The apostle's so abandoned. argument is this: If God spared not the rebellious Verse 9. The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly] angels, nor the sinful antediluvians, nor the cities of The preservation and deliverance of Lot gave the Sodom and Gomorrha, he will not spare those wicked apostle occasion to remark, that God knew as well teachers who corrupt the pure doctrines of Chris- to save as to destroy; and that his goodness led him tianity.

as forcibly to save righteous Lot, as his justice did to Sared Noah the eighth] Some think that the words destroy the rebellious in the instances already adshould be translated, Noah the eighth preacher of duced. And the design of the apostle in producing righteousness; but it seems most evident, from 1 Pet. these examples is to show to the people to whom he iii. 20, that eight persons are here meant, which were was writing that, although God would destroy those

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A. D. cir. 60.

Description of false teachers


and profligate professors. A.M. cir. 4064. 10 But chiefly a them that to be taken and destroyed, speak 4. M. cir. 4164

A. D. cir. 60, An. Olymp. walk after the flesh in the lust evil of the things that they un

An. Olymp. AU.c.cir. 813. of uncleanness, and despise derstand not; and shall utterly AU.C. cir. sis. .

government. •Presumptuous perish in their own corruption; are they, self-willed; they are not afraid to 13 & And shall receive the reward of unspeak evil of dignities.

righteousness, as they that count it pleasure 11 Whereas dangels, which are greater in "to riot in the day time. Spots they are and power and might, bring not railing accusation blemishes, sporting themselves with their own e against them before the Lord.

deceivings, while they feast with you; 12 But these, as natural brute beasts, made 14 Having eyes full of 'adultery, and that

a Jude 4, 7, 8, 10, 16. b Or, dominion. d Jude 9.

e Some read, against themselves.

c Jude 8. Jude 10.- Phil. iii. 19.- h See Rom. xii, 13.—Jode -1 Jer. xii. 3. | 12.- Lk 1 Cor. xi. 20, 21. Gr. an adulteress.

false teachers, yet he would powerfully save his Lord rebuke thee, Satan! but these treat the rulers of faithful servants from their contagion and from their God's appointment with disrespect and calumny. destruction. We should carefully observe, 1. That Before the Lord.] Mapa Kupių is wanting in : the godly man is not to be preserved from tempta- number of MSS. and most of the Versions. tion. 2. That he will be preserved in temptation.

Verse 12. But these, as natural brute beasts] 'Os 3. That he will be delivered out of it.

aloya Swa quoika' As those natural animals coido Verse 10. But chiefly them that walk] That is, God reason, following only the gross instinct of nature, will in the most signal manner punish them that being governed neither by reason nor religion. walk after the flesh--addict themselves to sodomitical Made to be taken and destroyed] Intended to be practices, and the lust of pollution ; probably alluding taken with nets and gins, and then destroyed to those most abominable practices where men abuse because of their fierce and destructiye nature ; so themselves and abuse one another.

these false teachers and insurgents must be treated: Despise government.] They brave the power and first incarcerated, and then brought to judgmér authority of the civil magistrate, practising their that they may have the reward of their doings. Asi abominations so as to keep out of the reach of the thus, by blaspheming what they do not under steed. letter of the law; and they speak evil of dignities, they at last perish in their own corruption ; i. e. tbe: they blaspheme civil government, they abhor the corrupt doctrines and vicious practices. restraints laid upon men by the laws, and would Verse 13. They that count it pleasure to riot in the wish all governments destroyed that they might live day time.] Most sinners, in order to practise the: as they list.

abominable pleasures, seek the secrecy of the night; Presumptuous are they] Toxuntai They are bold

but these, bidding defiance to all decorum, deceses, and daring, headstrong, regardless of fear.

and shame, take the open day, and thus procłam. Self-willed] Avdades Self-sufficient; presuming on

their impurities to the sun. themselves; following their own opinions, which no

Spotsand blemishes] They are a disgrace to the

Christian pame. authority can induce them to relinquish. Are not afraid to speak evil of dignities.] They are

Sporting themselves] Forming opinions which give lawless and disobedient, spurn all human authority,

license to sin, and then acting on those opinions ; and speak contemptuously of all legal and civiljuris- and thus rioting in their own deceits. diction. Those in general despise governments, and

With their own deceirings] Ev tais aparus. Bet speak evil of dignities, who wish to be under no instead of this, AB, and almost all the l'ersions and control, that they may act as freebooters in the com- several of the Fathers, have ev tais ayanais, in wat munity.

luve-feasts, which is probably the true reading. Verse 11. Whereas angels, &c.] This is a difficult

While they feast with you] It appears they held a verse, but the meaning seems to be this: The holy kind of communion with the church, and attended angels, who are represented as bringing an account sacred festivals, which they desecrated with their ona of the actions of the fallen angels before the Lord in unhallowed opinions and conduct. judgment, simply state the facts without exaggeration, Verse 14. Having eyes full of adultery] Mouyadies and without permitting any thing of a bitter, reviling, Of an adulteress; being ever bent on the gratiticatos or railing spirit, to enter into their accusations. See of their sensual desires, so that they are represented Zech. iii. 1, and Jude 9; to the former of which St. as having an adulteress constantly before their cuts, Peter evidently alludes. But these persons, not only and that their eyes can take in no other object bus speak of the actions of men which they conceive to her. But instead of polyalıooc, of an adulteress

, the be wrong, but do it with untrue colourings and the Codex Alexandrinus, three others, with the Coptic. greatest malevolence. Michael, the archangel, treated | Vulgate, and one copy of the Itala, together with a damned spirit with courtesy; be only said, The several of the Fathers, bave poigalias, of adultery.

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