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the forces in Ninigret's and Philip's war; one of the most distinguished of the early settlers of New England, and progenitor, it would seem, of all the numerous families of his name, including some individuals of a good deal of reputation, which the country has since produced. The names of the other “ twelve” are in the same manner “ inferred” from circumstances which leave little room for mistake. So are those of their successors, generally, through the medium of various petitions to the colonial authorities, and other official documents, independent of the records of the town. Twelve of their names appear in 1645, on an application for the reduction of their rates, owing to the migration of a considerable part of their population to a new settlement (since Fairfield,) in Connecticut, under the guidance of the Rev. Mr. John Jones.

This was another of the worthies, whose memory is a part of the early fame of Concord. He was a preacher of reputation in England, and came out in 1635, with the Rev. Messrs. Shepherd and Wilson, afterwards of Cambridge and Boston. He, too, was the ancestor of a great family, including, among six sons, one (Eliphalet) who became ultimately the first minister of Huntington, L. I., where he died about one hundred years old.

One of the twelve petitioners referred to last is William Wood. This person, who came to Concord in 1638, appears to have been the celebrated author of "New England's Prospect," the first who mentions the original name of Concord, Musketaquid. Mr. Wood is believed to have visited the ground as early as 1633, and to have been active, on bis retorn home, in promoting the settlement, which took place two years after, and was chiefly supplied with families directly from England.

With Wood came his nephew, Hon. Thomas Flint, who brought with him, according to a genealogy, property of four thousand pounds sterling, afterwards married a daughter of President Oakes of Harvard University, and was father, as Mr. Shattuck supposes, of the three Flints of Salem. He is the same "hardy” personage whom wonder-working Johnson refers to by name, when he pays him, in his “short metre,the compliment of having left, at Christ's command, his "lands, and native habitation,"

“His folke to aid, in desert straid, for gospel's exaltation.” He was probably something of a soldier, for the poet adds,

“Flint, hardy thou, will not allow the undermining fox, With subtill skill, Christ's vines to spoil ; Thy sword shall

give them knocks." Among the first settlers also were three Adamses, sons of Henry, of Quincy, who came from Devonshire; Barrett, an Englishman, ancestor of multitudes of the same name, including the Colonel James who superintended the important Concord stores at the time of the “Fight ;Buttrick, wlio came out in 1635, considered the ancestor of all of the name in New England, if not in America, the gallant Major killed on the 19th of April, among the rest; Dolor, one of the chief progenitors of the numerous family of Davis; a Dudley, who deserves nearly equal praise, having had, among other children, a son, Samuel, who had twenty children of his own, and lived to the age of one hundred and nine; John Hoar, brother of one President of Harvard, of that name, and Oakes, the father of another; the worthy Mr. Whiting, easily traced back to John, the mayor of Boston, in England; that, "excelling grammarian,” Minot, as his tomb-stone still bears witness, — being also a captain, physician, justice of the peace, and representative, not to mention his preaching in Stow, for twelve shillings and six pence a day, one half cash, and one half Indian corn, one of the most useful men of his time, and the father of the Hon. James, a leading character of the next generation; also Freeman Farwell, and Quarter-master Hartwell, each considered the progenitor of all among us of the same name; Judson, to whom the same distinction is ascribed ; and finally the Wheelers, probably from Wales, as many as six of whom were here as early as 1637, and several with families.f This name still continues to be borne by more persons in the town than any other. The births of six, called John, appear on the clerk's record between 1650 and 1670. One of the first comers was George, and it appears that children of the eighth generation are now living on the spot which he settled. Mr. Shattuck has filled a page or two of his Appendix with their genealogy.

We have referred to these details for various reasons, but

* See Appendix to the History, p. 379.

† Appendix.

particularly with the view, of illustrating a previous remark on the wonderful extent to which matters of this description, and all the materiel of local and general histories, may be sought out, and set forth, by persons of the competent qualifications. There is no end to the “ single dates” here. They would do George Dyer's heart good.

The circumstances of the first settlement, generally, have been in like manner restored ; and especially those of the remarkable march of the earliest band into the wilderness, in search of their destination.

That was a

toyle” of “ some dayes;” and Johnson has preserved a most affecting and graphic sketch of it, which is too well known to be quoted here. Suffice it that thus “this foore people,” as he says, “populate this howling desert, marching manfully on, the Lord assisting, through the greatest difficulties, and greater labors, than ever any with such weak means have done ;'-hard work for many an honest gentleman,” among the number, Buckley and Willard included. This was a march of twenty miles.

We cannot forbear introducing here the beautiful picture Mr. Emerson draws of their situation during the first winter. It places us at once in the very midst of his company:

“ They proceeded to build under the shelter of the hill that extends for a mile along the north side of the Boston road, their first dwellings. The labors of a new plantation were paid by its excitements. I seem to see them, with their pious pastor, addressing themselves to the work of clearing the land. Natives of another hemisphere, they beheld, with curiosity, all the pleasing features of the American forest. The landscape before them was fair, if it was strange and rude. The little flower which at this season stars our woods and road sides with its profuse blooms, might attract even eyes as stern as theirs with its humble beauty. The useful pine lifted its cones into the frosty air. The maple which is already making the forest gay with its orange hues, reddened over those houseless men. The majestic summits of Wachusett and Monadnoc towering in the horizon, invited the steps of adventure westward.

“ As the season grew later, they felt its inconveniences. • Many were forced to go barefoot and bareleg, and some in time of frost and snow, yet were they more healthy than now they

The land was low but healthy; and if, in common with all the settlements, they found the air of America very cold, they


* Johnson.

might say with Higginson, after his description of the other elements, that, “ New England may boast of the element of fire, more than all the rest; for all Europe is not able to afford to make so great fires as New England. A poor servant, that is to possess but fifty acres, may afford to give more wood for fire as good as the world yields, than many noblemen in England."* Many were their wants, but more their privileges. The light struggled in through windows of oiled paper, but they read the word of God by it. They were fain to make use of their knees for a table, but their limbs were their own. Hard labor and


diet they had, and off wooden trenchers, but they had peace and freedom, and the wailing of the tempest in the woods sounded kindlier in their ear, than the smooth voice of the prelates, at home, in England. There is no people,' said their pastor to his little flock of exiles, ' but will strive to excel in something. What can we excel in, if not in holiness ??” — pp. 9— 11.

These passages and facts are perhaps sufficient to indicate the hardy and substantial, and still more the moral and religious character of the early inhabitants of Concord. They were indeed among the very best of the population of the old country; and few things suggested by the perusal of this history and discourse can be more interesting or more gratifying than to watch, in the progress of affairs, and in the gradual development of the character of the town, under critical circumstances, the surviving influence of those original elements of its composition. The character of Concord as a town, from first to last, is by no means the least of its distinctions; though many individuals, its ministers, especially, have been among its blessings. What a leader was the noble Buckley for such an enterprise as the settling of Musketequid! not to mention Mr. Jones, who was eight years his colleague. His successor, at his death in 1659, was his son Edward, whose ministry continued over fifty years, most of it at Concord; a man whose reputation for piety was such as to have given rise to the tradition, that, in Philip's war, when it is rather remarkable that Concord nearly escaped the ravages of the enemy, a consultation occurred among some of their chiefs on the neighboring highlands in Stow, on the question whether the precedence should be given to Sudbury or Concord, as the object of attack, and is said to have been decided for the former by the argument, that the Great Spirit loved the Concord people, and would defend them on account of Mr. Buckley, residing there ; – he was a "great pray.

* New England's Plantation.

+ E. W's Letter in Mourt, 1621.

His colleague and successor was Mr. Estabrook, for over forty-four years; a man so noted for his holiness, dignity and learning, as to have acquired, in the latter part of his life, the name of the apostle. The News Letter is full of his praises, on the occasion of his death; and the opinion was expressed at one time, that he “ought to come to Boston, where he could do more good.” Mr. Whiting, who was next pastor for twentysix years, is called by our historian a man of wealth, learning, influence and talent. The term of Mr. Bliss, who followed him, was the same. He also was among the distinguished clergy of his time. His last sermon was preached at the special request of the famous Whitfield, on his second visit to Concord, and made such an impression upon him as to cause the remark, that “if he had studied his whole life, he could not have produced such a sermon.” His reputation, evidently, as even his epitaph still shows, was very high :

“ His soul was of ye angelic frame,

The same ingredients, and ye mould ye same,

Whom the Creator makes a minister of Fame.” The Rev. William Emerson followed, and though he lived but eleven years after, part of the time in the army of the Revolution, on his return from which to his people he died, there is abundant evidence of the great influence he acquired, and of the regret felt at his loss. Only nine years since a monument was erected to his memory. He was a descendant of Mr. Buckley. His successor was the present venerable incumbent, Mr. Ripley, still active in the exercise of his duties in the fifty-seventh year, we believe, of bis ministry, and at the advanced age of eighty-five. Such has been the ministry of the first church in Concord, the thirteenth established in the colony, which has now attained the age of two centuries, wanting but three months. For forty years of Mr. Ripley's term, it is worthy of notice, that no individual has paid a ministerial tax to any other society than his. In 1925, a second church was formed in the town, previous to which, with the exception of a few years of Mr. Bliss's term, the whole town was united in one for the space of one hundred

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