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Christopulus, will always be admired for graceful expression, lively imagery, and a delightful gaiety of sentiment. But besides the beautiful productions of their original genius, the modern Greeks have been busily employed in translating a large number of the best works in European literature. Dr. Coray has but lately ended a long and active life, devoted to the literature and the liberty of his country. No man has done so much to raise the standard of style, to free the language from barbarism, to spread the love of sound learning among his countrymen, as this admirable scholar. He edited in Paris a select library of the ancient classics, chosen according to their supposed applicability to the existing condition of the nation, and prefixed to them introductions in modern Greek, which are models of chaste composition and stirring eloquence. It is true that the modern Greeks have not yet had a Dante, a Shakspeare or a Milton; but they have done enough to show that they have a prodigious strength of national character; that they cherish an enthusiastic pride of country and ancestry; and that they have the genius to restore the long lost glories of their intellectual dominion. They read and study the works of their great ancestors, in the spirit and with the pride of fellow countrymen. Their education is founded on their ancient literature; and with what advantages for the full comprehension of its sublimest beauties! the soil beneath them, the hills around them, hallowed by the thronging associations of bistory, moistened by the blood of the defenders of freedom, and now redeemed from the pollution of barbarian footsteps. The institutions of modern civilization are rapidly forming. With a young prince on the throne of Greece brought up at a court distinguished for literary and classical taste, under the care of a father whose ruling passion is the study of ancient learning and art, and educated in an enthusiastic love of Grecian letters, by one of the most illustrious scholars of Germany ; the Greeks may reasonably expect a system of government in genial union with the spirit of their nation, and anticipate a speedy revival of poetry and art, in something approaching their ancient splendor. The enlightened councils of Bavaria, supported by the unanimous approbation of Europe, can hardly fail of rapidly removing every obstacle to the complete regeneration of Greece.

The next two lectures contain a discussion of the “ Analogy of the Greek language," or the principles of derivation, inflexVOL. XLII.

NO. 90. 15

ion, and classification according to termination, which prevail throughout its whole structure. In treating this subject, Mr. Moore avails himself of the works of three distinguished scholars; Valckenaer, Von Lennep, and Cattier. The theories of these profound philologists are stated in a very clear and succinct form. We must content ourselves with recommending these two valuable lectures to the particular attention of young students, without further comment.

The sixth and concluding lecture is wholly taken up with the subject of Greek pronunciation. The discussion contains, first, a brief statement of the Reuchlinian and Erasmian systems; then a more particular examination of the Reuchlinian system, and the arguments which lead the author to give it a decided preference. Connected with the foregoing, Mr. Moore handles the subject of Greek accents, treating of their history, import, and use. We acknowledge the ability, learning and candor which the Professor shows in the management of all these topics, but we are obliged to dissent wholly from his opinion of the superiority of the Erasmian over the Reuchlinian pronunciation. The question is attended with many difficulties, and perhaps can never be settled to the satisfaction of all. Without going into the endless field of argument and conjecture, we will attempt to illustrate our view of the merits of the question by a hypothetical example. Suppose the English nation were to be overrun in the course of ages by hordes of barbarous invaders. Suppose their literature to degenerate, and their language to become corrupt. A portion of the people, however, remain unsubdued, and the language continues, under certain modifications, to be written and spoken in the country; so that, in its worst state, it bears so strong a resemblance to the old form, that a good English scholar may learn it in a month. Who, in the case just imagined, would have the best right to settle the pronunciation of old English, the descendants of the ancient English people, or the French, Germans, and Italians? Which would be the best method of approximating to the pronunciation of antiquity, to take the fact of the existing pronunciation, as a basis, or to assume a probability, and by reasoning on abstract principles, infer what it was from what we imagine it ought to have been? What sort of work would a Frenchman make of English, or an Englishman inake of French, were he to proceed in the spirit of such a preposterous method ? Now the Greeks of this age are descended

from the Greeks of the age of Demosthenes. There never has been an interregnum in their language; there never has been a time when any other language has taken the place of their own. Corrupted as their language is, the substance of it is Greek. Bad as their pronunciation may be, ours must be worse. If they have departed from the pronunciation of their ancestors, Erasmus and his followers must have departed from it still more. The one has at least the authority of tradition, the other has little more than the authority of conjecture. We consess we are inclined to let the Greeks teach us how to pronounce the language of their country and ancestry. We find it hard not to sympathize with the ludicrous perplexity with which an accomplished Greek gentleman listens to the sounding hexameters of Homer, as they are read to him by an English or American scholar. We have before remarked that, in our opinion, the power of uniting accent and quantity, precisely as the ancients did, is now lost. But we have no doubt that if Demosthenes could rise up to day, and go to a council of state in Athens, he would comprehend with tolerable ease the drift of the arguments there used, provided King Otho's councillors should not take it upon them to discuss the affairs of Greece in High Dutch. But if the awful Shade were to enter a classroom in one of our universities, and hear a Freshman glibly construing his own magnificent oration on the crown, would he not stare with amazement, when told that the young gentleman was reciting the very eloquence he had himself, at the height of his powers and renown, "fulmined over Greece ?" Would he be likely to cry out, with the jealous dramatist of Queen's Anne's age, that's my thunder "

The subject has been ably treated, as the literary world well know, by the Honorable John Pickering, in a paper printed in the transactions of the American Academy. The argument in that paper, has always seemed to us scarcely less than conclusive. But the whole matter is likely to undergo a fresh discussion, as soon as the present Greek nation shall have come into close political and literary relations with the rest of Europe.

The new interest, which the study of classical antiquity will acquire from connecting it with a living, commercial, and literary language, will lead, as we think, to a departure from the present conjectural method of pronunciation. The present language of Greece will have to be studied as an important subsidiary aid to the full understanding of the ancient; and our scholars will find it hard, if not impossible, to pronounce the one like a living language, without extending that pronunciation to the other.

We look for much instruction from the native scholars of Greece. We doubt not the beauties of classic literature will be more learnedly and fully displayed than they have ever yet been. There must be in the scenery of the country, in the modes of thought, expressions, customs, traditions of the people, an immense amount of interesting and important illustration. And as to verbal criticism, and conjectural emendation of corrupted passages, who would not prefer the native tact and the sure feeling of a born Greek, to the learned guesses of the ablest commentator in any German University ?

ART. V. Biographies of Wayne and Vane.
The Library of American Biography. Conducted by


The preceding volumes of this miscellany have been noticed in our journal. We learn with satisfaction, that it will be continued. The volumes, which have hitherto appeared, present an interesting and instructive variety of historical and biographical research. A work conducted on the plan of the library of American biography occupies an important middle ground, between a biographical dictionary and a history. It affords a convenient vehicle for information relative to distinguished individuals and memorable occurrences, which might run into too great length, for the opposite purposes either of a biographical dictionary or a general history. The experience of all ages has pronounced in favor of works of this description. Plutarch's parallel lives may be considered as their representative specimen, and perhaps for all classes of readers, Plutarch's lives is as great a favorite as any work ever composed, the bible excepted.

The present volume of the biographical library contains less variety than some of its predecessors, but it is equally valuable. A memoir of Anthony Wayne occupies the first portion of it, but the greater part of the volume is devoted to a lif

Sir Henry Vane. The life of Wayne is from the pen of General John Armstrong. It is a narrative of great interest. The grandfather of General Wayne, bearing also the name of Anthony Wayne, emigrated from England to Ireland in 1681, where he established himself as a farmer. He fought on the popular side, at the battle of the Boyne. Not satisfied with the government which he had contributed to establish, nor with the manners of the people among whom he had settled himself, he removed from Ireland to Pennsylvania in the year 1722, at the age of sixty-three years. He established bis family in Chester county, where on the first of January 1745, his grandson and namesake, the general Anthony Wayne of the American army, was born. He was the only son of his father, Isaac Wayne, and was sent to school to his uncle Gilbert. Almost all that is known of his boyish days is contained in a letter from Gilbert the uncle, to Isaac the father, of the youthful chieftain, in which the former expresses himself in no very promising terms of his pupil. “I verily suspect,” says he, " that parental affection blinds you ; and that you have mistaken your son's capacity. What he may be the best qualified for, I know not; but one thing I am certain of, he will never make a scholar. He may make a soldier; he has already distracted the brains of two thirds of the boys, under my direction, by rehearsals of battles, sieges, &c. They exhibit more the appearance ef Indians and Harlequins than of students; this one, decorated with a cap of many colors; and others habited in coats as variegated as Joseph's of old; some laid up with broken heads and others with black eyes. During noon, in place of the usual games and amusements, he has the boys employed in throwing up redoubts, skirmishing, &c. I must be candid with you, brother Isaac; unless Anthony pays more attention to his books, I shall be under the painful necessity of dismissing him from the school.”—

The writer of this sketch of the life of the future hero regards the foregoing letter as a hasty report," and far from prophetic in its forebodings." But it really strikes us as an extraordinary instance of foresight as to future character. We read "mad Anthony "in every line ; and if such a thing as phrenology had existed in Chester county, in the middle of the last century, and worthy Mr. Gilbert Wayne had been an adept in that noble science, we should suppose, that he must have found, on the cranium of the youthful hero, language mod

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