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Two or more thoughts may be united into one when they stand in a contrasted, causal, or adversative relation to a third thought, expressed or understood.
Hx.-She was poor, she was not of high rank; she could think of marriage with him. We have won for ourselves this soil by the dustry of our hands; and changed the old forest into a habitation of men; and killed the brood of dragons, etc., etc., (Therefore this soil is ours.)
The causal and adversative relations are called the logical relations of thought and sentences.
These logical relations are denoted by special form-words, called co-ordinate conjunctions.
A simple sentence often becomes a compound sentence by expressing one member of the sentence, the subject, or an attribute, or an object, in the form of a thought, * by a sentence. Then that sentence which expresses the main thought is called the principal sentence, and that which expresses only a member of it in the form of a thought, is called an accessory sentence; and the union of the sentences is a subordinating union.
Ec.-Happen then what must (the necessary). What I can and am is at thy service. They demand in anger that the maiden die (the death of the maiden). We were happy people before you came (before your coming).
IV. In compound sentences of this sort the principal sentence expresses a thought (a judgment, a question, or a wish) of the speaker; the necessary sentence expresses only a notion, or a thought only spoken of by the speaker (89).
Ex.-Insist upon it, that his lordship withdraw (upon the withdrawa', etc.) Pray God that he may enlighten you with his wisdom.ets.
The relation in which the accessory sentence stands to its principal sentence, is not a logical one, i.e., a relation of thoughts to one another, but a grammatical relation of notions (38), to-wit: (a.) The relation of the subject to the predicate.
Ex.-Does what makes him eloquent; tie your tongue ? (6.) The relation of an attribute to its relative word.
Ex.—The honor which belongs to him, I gladly give him. (6.) The relation of an object to the predieate.
Ex.-I must speak what is true. These relations are also denoted by special form-words, called subor. dinating conjunctions. They are especially denoted by a demonstrative or interrogative pronoun standing in the accessory sentence; and these,
* A notion being but & contracted thought, it may, of course, be readily expanded into a thought.
if they denote the relation of an accessory to its principal senteace, are called relative pronouns.
Ex.-He who touches pitch defiles himself. I do not know what I am to say.
INFLECTION AND FORM-WORDS. (83.) We call the relations of notions to one another, and the relations of notions to the speaker, the grammatical relations of notions. They are expressed in part by the inflection of notional words and in part by formwords.
By inflection is meant the change in the vocal relation of a word, corresponding to a special relation of the word to other words. This consists partly in a change of the vocal, and partly in the taking of endings, called inflectional endings.
Ex.-Speak, spoke, spoken, epeaks. We call the uninflected form of the word, as distinguished from the ending, the stem.
Form-words, like inflectional endings, express, not notions, but the relations of notions only. They often occupy, too, the place of endings.
Ex.-More wise, a ring of gold, instead of wis-er, and a gold-en rirg. Remark 1.–Form-words are, for the most part, words which originally expi essed notions, and afterward took the signification of form-words.
Remark 2.-As the stem with its termination, so according to its signification does the notion-word with its form.word constitute a whole, and, in a manner, one word, although they are separate in writing.
1.-CLAS:ES OF FORM-WORDS. X(14.) Under form-words are included, accordingly 210 and 212, the verb to be, the auxiliaries, the pronouns, the numerals, the prepositions, the conjunctions, and the adverbial form-words.
1. The verb to be does not express like other verbs, e.g., to speak, to run, the notion of a predicated activity, but it denotes, with adjectives, that predication which is denoted in other verbs by terminations. (22,24). The verb to be is, therefore, called the word of predication, or the predicating word.
Ex.-Thou art watchful, thou watch-est. He was watchful, he watch.ed. He is asleep, he sleep.8
2. The auxiliarics, namely, the auxiliaries of time, have, shall or will, and be, and the auxiliaries of mode, can, may, will, shall, must, and let, do no longer express, like other verbs, notions of activities, but denote only the relations of the activity—the former the time-relation, and the latter the mode-relation. (810.)
3. Pronouns, e.g., I, thou, he, she, it, do not express, as band, runner,
snake, a notion which is formed from some radical notion, and remains always the same (23), but denote only the notion of a being by its relation to the speaker (the personal relation g 10.)
4. Numerals, e.g., two, three, many, few, do not express, like substantives, the notion of a being itself, nor like adjectives, an activity of the being, but only the relation of quantity—the number or the quantity of the being (10), e.g., three horses, much water.
5. Prepositions, eg., on, out, with, from, to, denote the space-relation, and other relations of a being to an activity (311).
6. Conjunctions, e.g., and, but, because, express the relations in which the members of a compound sentence stand to one another (12).
7. Adverbial form-words denote, all of them, not notions, but relations of notions to the speaker, to-wit:
(a.) Relation of place; over, under, before, behind.
8 15. Under the adduced classes of notion-words, and form-words are included all the words of speech. There are found, however, in speech peculiar sound-formatives, e.g., oh! ah! ha! which are called interjections, and also exclamations.
Interjectious do not express notions, or relations of notions, but appear in speech as expressions of an instantaneously excited feeling of pain, joy, wonder, etc., etc. They stand, therefore, in no relation to words, which express the thought.
From exclamations proper must be distinguished, however, expressions like woe! well! lo! which have the signification of elliptical sentences, and are united to the sentence, or inserted in it, without any outer connection
To be Continued.
The best definition we ever hearů of “bearing false witness against your neighbor," was given by a little girl in school. She said that it was when nobody did nothing, and somebody went and told of it.
HEARING a physician remark that a small blow would break the nose, a rastic exclaimed:
"Well, I donno 'bout that. I've blowed my nose a great many times, and I've never broke it yet."
FROM TÜE REPORT OF A COUNTRY TOWN SUPERINTENDENT, DELIVERED
BEFORE THE CITIZENS, IN TOWN MEETING ASSEMBLED, APRIL 1859,
(Continued from the July Number.)
A want of uniformity in text books is another serious evil, and in some districts calls loudly for reform. In traversing the range of duties devolving upon us, we have sometimes found nearly or quite as many classes as pupils. In one instance were found twenty-three pupils and nineteen classes, and in another, twenty pupils and twenty-one classes, which are sufficient to show the evil effects of the want of system. Where a complete uniformity prevails, among the benefits may be mentioned:
1. The introduction of a more systematic, thorough and extended course of study.
2. Increased facilities for arranging larger and more suitable classes, enabling the teacher to devote more time to each class, to amplify and illustrate more fully the subject under discussion than could be done were classes smaller and more to be heard.
3. Greater facilities for classification in respect to age and attainments of pupils, and adapting instructions to the capacities of all.
4. The enthusiasm and interest created in the minds of pupils, not only during recitation, but during the hours of study, by the thought that they must measure themselves intellectually with a large class, and the desire to excel.
5. The economy of both time and labor on the part of both teacher and pupils.
No one who has witnessed the practical workings of a regular system will deny, that in a well classified school a teacher can instruct fifty or sixty pupils with more ease and efficiency than half that number, where system and uniformity are wanting. By computation of the teacher's salary it will often be found that the value of time actually lost, resulting from this inconvenience, is several times greater than the cost of books. To save the expense of a few shillings, many a scholar has been allowed to drag out his time the whole term, making less than half the progress that he otherwise might, besides being a detriment to the whole school, and an incubus upon the time of the teacher. A book well studied is soon earned, and still remains in hand. We often find the opposite extreme existing, the over-zealous parent provides a text-book far in advance of the years or capacities of his pupil. This is an evil little less
serious than a want of books. The tendency in this direction is quite strong, and requires to be kept within proper bounds. In the purchase of advance books the opinion of the teacher might with great propriety be consulted. Text-books are also frequently found in use, which more properly belong to the higher schools only, and, except in rare instances, are used with less benefit than those of a lower grade. The regulation of these matters properly and legally devolves upon the school officers, and by their discretion, vigilance and firmness, numerous evils may be removed or prevented and others much corrected.
Still another ground of complaint by teachers, is, that too many children are sent into school quite too young, requiring more time and care than are commensurate with the benefits received. If a child manifest any evidence of smartness, he is stimulated and urged forward by the parents, to a degree greater than his powers can endure. Medical authorities assert, that under ten yeas of age, very little strong mental effort can be required, without injury to the intellectual constitution. A premature grave is often the result of premature development. When the intellect has acquired power and vigor, the child will acquire a given amount, in half tbe time that it can be done, while the intellect and judgment are still subject to infantile weakness. The custom of sending young children to the school room, in order that they may be out of the way at home, cannot be too strongly censured. Only when the mind and constitution have become sufficiently developed and matured, to endure the necessary fatigue and exertion incident to him as a pupil, should the child commence his attendance at school, let the age be what it may. Little advantage will generally be derived before attaining five or six years of age.
When teachers labor under such a series of complicated evils, too much censure should not be bestowed upon them, till steps are taken to remedy them. We would not be understood as offering an apology for their short comiogs or delinquencies, but enumerate some of their causes of complaint, in order to call public attention to them, for the benefit of teacher pupils and patrons.
Besides the common branches, algebra, geometry, and philosophy have been taught during the year with a good degree of success. Vocal music, also, has in several instances been introduced with a marked and beneficial result, and is a branch which, with proper restrictions, needs encouragement. The mysteries of clefs, sharps, and flats, and the rudiments of the science generally, may, if properly taught, all be comprehended by the pupil, and the exercises prove a recreation, tending to enliven the mind, cultivate refinement, promote cheerfulness, and afford a temporary relief from the monotony of the
During the summer term there were employed several young teachers, who, considering their inexperience, generally acquitted themselves with honor. During the winter term both male and female teachers were en