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would it not rather be Catholicism, centralized in the authority of the church, and strengthened by that so infinitely? Have we not already the show of a grand Catholic officiating at the opening of Congress? Do we not see our President and Cabinet present when Archbishop Hughes dedicated a Catholic church in Washington ?
We ought to do what we can to keep the mind of the young generation free from any religious influence, at least, in schools. We owe it to the names of the immortal framers of the Constitution. We owe it to our descendants, who have a right to expect that we deliver to them the liberty which our ancestors won for us.
And, again, I ask, have they more morality down there where they have Bible reading, prayer, and religious instruction in schools, than here, where they have it not ? The statistics of prisons, and poor-houses, and of crime generally, answer in the negative. Why, then, in the name of common sense, should we give an opportunity for religious quarrels by favoring an unconstitutional introduction of religious instruction in our free common schools ? I shall abstain from giving the incompatibility of the Bible, as a reading book in schools, or as a text-book for morals, and simply ask if there is any teacher in the whole country who would take the responsibility of giving that book into the hands of his pupils indiscriminately without burdening his conscience with the fear that the unsuspecting mind of the young reader might receive impressions which would spoil it for a lifetime ? The prayer at the opening of the school, is, at the best, a waste of time which ought to be devoted to other ends, for a pupil, attentively reading the Bible, could soon prove to his teacher that the Bible itself forbids public prayer; the philosophical mind of another could puzzle the teacher by asking how prayer could encroach upon the eternal laws of nature. A third, perhaps, a little versed in politics, would show its unconstitutionality.
At length religious instruction can be given by any teacher, but according to his special religious creed, except he be a hypocrite, or, what is the same, a knave, and is, therefore, sectarian anyway; thus constitutions and statutes forbid the same. The address of Dr. E. G. Kelly before the Essex County Teachers' Association, at Danvers, Oct. 14th, 1859, treats the same subject; and I agree generally with him, although I disagree with him somewhat concerning the Bible. You may read the address in the Newburyport Herald, or an extract from the same in the Boston Investigator of Nov. 30th, 1859.
B. 0. ZASTROW Kussow. CEDARBURG, Ozaukee Co., Dec. 4th, 1859.
IT often happens that those are the best people whose characters have been most injured by slanders.
The commencement of every new school year brings with it a season of teachers' examinations—I do not mean the annual farce of calling the teachers together to see which can answer correctly the greatest number of set questions, and where, as at all school examinations, the most brazen faced always come off with “the highest honors "-(as though there could be any true test of a person's “ability to teach” aside from actual trial in the schoolroom)—that is not the examination I refer to, nor the one I deem most important; but rather that rigid self-examination, that close scrutiny into the heart, scanning well all its secret springs of thought and action, that every true teacher must feel who realizes as he ought the importance of the position he occupies.
To the mind of the teacher, often, and especially at the beginning of each term, such questions as these will arise: Do I fully realize the extent of the influence I daily exert over these youthful minds ? that day after day impressions are made that never can be effaced ? Am I careful that as the mind expands, and new thoughts and facts are being constantly received, that these shall be intermingled with such as are calculated to make the scholar better as well as more learned ? Are his moral as well as intellectual and physical powers being properly educated ? Above all, am I sufficiently watchful over myself that every thought, word and action as exhibited before my pupils, be such as may be safely imitated ? The teacher's mission is an important one.
In the schoolroom impressions are received and characters formed that last through life--nay, more, that will endure as long as the mind itself shall exist. Each day is as it were, a blank page upon which ineffaceable characters are to be written, and he who would rightly enter upon its duties should himself first receive instruction at the feet of the Great Teacher.
HOME CONVERSATIONS ABOUT SCHOOL.
Now, my dear children, come, we will sit dowu together and talk for a few moments about school. Your mother has a great deal to do this morning; hurry; get together quickly; I have no time lose. It is Mon. day morning-washing, dinner, and the duties of the week say there must be no delay. You are now for the first time to leave home for direct instruction. I shall be thinking about you and praying for you all day; and oh! how anxious I am to have you obey your teacher, and set a good ex
ample for the rest of the pupils. I have spared no pains to teach you the principles of correct action. I believe, aye, I know you are truthful. You know what it is to equivocate, and yet, I am happy to know that you have not learned to do so. You have heard vulgarity and profanity in the streets, and from children with whom you have played, and yet you are free from the use of it. You go now among boys and girls who may not have had the care and attention bestowed upon them that you have. Your mother will not be there to watch the influence of all the novelties, and warn you of the dangerous ones. You
may hear improper language ; you may see queer actions, some may be unfair in their play—they may deceive and prevaricate ; others may be abusive if you do not enter into their sports; if you do not approve of all they do, they may be offended, and laugh you to scorn. You will not be entirely unprepared for this. They may call you cowards and ninnies, if you will not box or throw each other down. You will have thoughts and feelings after this which you have not had before; remember them. I hear that Miss Newcomb, who is to be your teacher, is a lady of experience, rare qualifications, and extraordinary refinement. I shall make her acquaintance very soon.
From what I hear she will exact the strictest obedience, and upon the slightest misdemeanor. See to it, dear children, that you encourage her by perfect conduct, noiseless study, and ready attention. Remember her instructions of to-day. Retire now into your closets, ask God to guide you by the influence of his Holy Spirit to do what is right; watch yourselves closely, and this evening bring me a clear report.
Now a kiss--good bye-away to your closets, and then to school.
SALARIES OF FEMALE TEACHERS.*
" THE same amount of labor should be remunerated with the same amount of money, whether the work be performed by man or woman." This sentiment has been most courteously forced upon me that I may present it in such a light as to place before your minds some thoughts for the consideration of the members of this Association. I am aware in so doing I am only bringing old truths to your remembrance; for the subject is one on which it would appear that every idea possible had been long since advanced. But, although it has been agitated, and so long
• Road before the Walworth County Toachers' Association, Doc. 27th, 1869.
agitated that both sides seem nearly, if not quite, threadbare, I conclude there must be some part-it may be in its very center-which has not yet been reached, or you would not have desired its discussion here. Every enterprise or department of labor or trade should be remunerated in proportion to the amount of capital employed. This all will admit, and, therefore, it simply remains for me to apply it to my subject. We mention first the expenditure, in a monetary view, requisite to prepare persons to impart instruction, in a given degree, is the same in each indi. vidual case. Also, that the time necessary to the full development of those faculties of the mind which are absolutely essential to our improvement in any one thing, and without the proper expansion of which there can be no true teaching, must be equally long. Again, the labor expended in bodily toil, the closeness of application, rigor of discipline, and every other demand, must be dealt out under the same stern rule, let it fall on man or woman. If, as some claim, the weaker vessel doctrine be applicable to the mind of woman, it must, of necessity, require more capital of time, labor, and money to raise her to the position requisite to the performance of the equal amount of labor demanded. If this be true, that the same amount of outlay of money, time, and labor be demanded to prepare a woman for the work of teaching as to prepare a man, then most certainly ought she to receive equal remuneration.
It is a sentiment to which the heart of man responds in nearly every act of life, “that we recompense according to the good done.” If I snatch a child from the flames, and thus save his life, although at the same time endangering my own, am I not deserving of as many thanks as hough I possessed the sterner qualities of a man? If, in any given instance, woman is deserving of as great an amount of gratitude as man, is she not as much entitled to an equal recompense where it is presented in a tangible form as material aid ? This holds true in all cases, whether in the labor of the mind, or body, or both. Take, for example, teaching. Is not the same benefit derived by the pupil when the instruction is imparted by a woman, with all the gentleness and affection known only to her, as when by the coercive power of man?
What is the true object of teaching? Is it not inciting to right action by eulture of right principles implanted in the mind and heart? The heart, which is the fountain from which emanates every desire, either of good or evil, must be reached. The cause of error must be removed before we begin to work against its effects. The seeds of vice and ignorance already germinated within the heart, must be eradicated, and in their place the tree of knowledge must be rooted and grounded, which shall produce the friuts of Virtue, Truth, and Justice. The mind is placed in the hands of teachers, "as clay in the potter's hands," and they mould it as they
will. They elevate it and expand its desires and capabilities to the capacities and enjoyments of an angel, or they destroy all that is good within it, and make it a demon. This can only be done by line upon line, precept upon precept, example upon example, by being in reality what we seem to be. We must be instant in season and out of season, never wearying of well doing.
Who more fitting to do this great work aright than woman ? That woman can more effectually reach the heart than man, is granted by all. Let a man gain the affection of a child, to the very best of his abilitythere are chords which can be vibrated only by the gentle touch of woman; there are doors within their heart of hearts which are too sacred for the entrance of any save woman. If, then, woman is capable of doing the same amount of good, she ought to be remunerated accordingly. We ask not for woman's rights as they are loudly called for by some; we seek no admittance to your Halls of Congress, and Legislative bodies—such we leave for men to fill. But we not only ask, but demand that where we perform the same amount of labor that you do, we may be equally rewarded. Give us this and we are content to toil on in our noble work, and so educate the youth that we may speak through them; that we being dead may in and through them live. And we ask it as a right,-for, if the conclusions which have been drawn are true, then, in all Justice, woman should be remunerated the same as man for an equal amount of labor performed.
THE QUIET SLUMBER.
Lay him gently to his rest;
Look upon him now!
We never saw in life.
Let him sleep.