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i may be requested to lecture, or to explain and illustrate special subjects, in unibe: son with such regulations as may be adopted for this purpose.
It is considered that the construction of such a building, even though limited ci at first to one apartment, dedicated to lectures, experimental purposes, and a se
lect series of practical operations, might be rendered not undeserving of the countenance of the legislature, of the university, and other public institutions All individuals, also, interested in education, in the improvement of the condition of the people, in the blending of the Fine and Useful Arts, and in affording facilities of illustration, investigation, and consultation in special arts and manufactures, will be invited to co-operate in this cause.
No fleeting nor temporary object being contemplated by the plan proposed but one whose influence, it is believed, might soon be felt both in the city and in the State, it is deemed desirable that the final plan should depend on the result of the first year's trial, and that it should be fully explained and illustrated in a temporary structure that may be extended and rendered permanent, according to the support it receives.
It is proposed that the whole of the arrangements for the proceedings of the 3 first year shall be under the direction of a Committee, to be appointed by those
Gentlemen, who will agree to subscribe the necessary sum for the use of the ground and the erection of the building, provided an adequate sum for
the expenses of the first year shall be received by subscription, or by tickets to E the different courses, illustrations, and practical operations which will be con- ducted there during this period.
ERRATTUM.-In Problem No. 32, in the October number, for “and FAD is double FCD," read “FCD is double FAD."
THE NORMAL, or methods of teaching the common branches, Orthoepy, Orthog
raphy, Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic, and Elocution; including the outlines, technicalities, explanations, demonstrations, definitions, and methods introductory and peculiar to each branch. By ALFRED HOLBROOK, Principal of Normal School, Lebanon, Ohio. New-York: A. S. Barnes & Burr. 51 and 53 Jobn St. 1859. This work commences with a classification of knowledge under the three departments of Literature, Science, and Art, accompanied by concise definitions of each division, branch, or topic, after which tbe several subjects mentioned on the title page are taked up in their order oatined, defined, and explained, and the author's methods of teaching them to primary and
advanced classes clearly set forth. Prepared by an experienced and successful teacher and 28 presenting an exposition of methods and plads elaborated in the school room, instead of the
study, it is eminently a practical work, worth ten times its cost to the young teacher every year he is engaged in the sehool room, and furnishing for those of more experience definite outline of the stucies pursued in schools, and many valuable suggestions in regard to methods of teaching. We heartily recommend the book to the profcssion, and trust that its merite will insure it an extended circulation
BOOK-KEEPING, by Single and Double Entry, simplified and adapted to the use of
Common Schools. By W. W. Smith and EDWARD MARTIN. New-York: A. S. Barnes & Burr, 51 and 53 Johň St. 1859.
This is really a practicall work, and the usually difficult processes of Journalizing, Posting, etc., are so simplified and explained that any youth of average intellect can understand the whole matter, and become a good book keeper by studying its attractive pages. More attention ought to be given to this subject in our common schools, and this work is well calcolated to make the study interesting and profitable.
THE SCIENCE OF EDUCATION, AND ART OF TEACHING; in two parts. By
John OGDEN, A. M. Cincinnati: Moore, Wilstach, Keyes & Co., 25 West Fourth St. 1859.
Part first of the above work is a forcible and philosophical expesition of the nature of man, and the true object of education, treating the subjec; ander the following heads: Educational Capacity; Educational Forces; Educational Processes; Physical, Intellectual, Moral, and Ree jigious Education. Part second is devoted to the consideration of school-room daties embracing the following topics : Study, Recitation, School business, Recreation, and Goveroment. The work of a practical teacher, and close thinker, it is well calculated to convince its readers that there is such a thing as The Science of Education " founded upon immutable principles, and that the Art of Teaching ” 18 worthy of a prominent place in the list of arts which benefit and bless mankind. Characterised by simplicity and clearness of style and a high moral tone it is worthy of a place on a front shelf in the teacher's library, and we are happy to know that many of our teachers have already secure d it as an aid in the performance of their responsible duties.
THE UNIVERSAL SPEAKER, containing a collection of Speeches, Dialogues and
Recitations adapted to the use Schools, Academies and social circles. Edited by N. A. Calkins and W. T. ADAMS. Boston: Brown, Taggard & Chase, 25 and 29 Cornhill. 1859.
The increased attention given to the subject of declamation, and rhetorical exercises gen. erally, ia our schools, has caused a supply of works of the character of the above, suited to the wants of pupils of every age and grade. We notice in this book an adaptat.on of the subjects and style of treating them, to the comprehension and capacity of those for whom it is designed aud a variety of topics and exercises not often found in similar works. Part 2 was prepared by Prof. Wm. Russell, the celebrated elocutionist, and presents the notation and style of deliv. ery adopted by that succeesful teacher. The pieces, as a general rule, are entirely new and the editors have evinced judgment and good taste in their selections. The mechanical execution of the book is excellent, and its attractive appearance, as well as g:nuine merit commends it to the favorable consideration of teachers and pupils.
A FAMILIAR COMPEND OF GEOLOGY, for the School and Family, By A. M.
HILLSIDE, Philadelphia: James Chalen & Son. 1859. That the study of geology cannot be pursued to any considerable extent, particularly in our common schools, is evident at a glance; but that a knowledge of its elements and first princi. ples is necessary to enable one to fully understand many of the allusions and illustrations in works on kindred topics or general literature, is also evident: and as the mass of our people obtain all the education they ever get in the common school, we believe that a work treating only of first principles and giving a general outline of the subject in simple language, as & free as possible from technicalities and scientific terms, would supply a want hitherto unsupplied. This work seems to have bcen prepared with reference to that very object, and, so far as our limited acquaintance with the science enables us to judge, the author has success. fully carried out the plan, and given a correct and interesting compend of the elements of Geology. The work is finely printed, and beautifully illustrated; has a copious g ossary, and full index, and, in the hands of a live teacher, would serve a valuable purpose in opening to the youthful mind a few pages of the Book of Nature.
ITS NATURAL AND ACQUIRED CHARACTER-THE OBLIGATIONS IMPOSED UPON US.
(Continued from the November Number.) The teacher should possess mature judgment, a knowledge of human nature, and especially a knowledge of the nature and demands of the intellect. The principal mission of science is the development of intellect; the educator, therefore, must not only know the intellect, but he should be familiar with science in its various branches, that he may know how to deal it out as intellectual food. That one who merely knows the letters is sufficiently educated to teach them, needs no confutation; it is extreme folly.
The greatest of all demands upon the educator is self-control. The passionate man can scarcely drive an ox, or hold a plow; but nowhere else does passion do as much evil as in the school. But, how great a work is this ! Many have fought; but few have won. • He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty, and he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.” It has become a motto, that he who would rule others must first rule himself.
The next great labor is the government of others. Pupils, from near the cradle to the age of manhood, must be governed. Government in school is as necessary as air and light. It is a principle in nature that wherever there is action there must be control; and control must be the result of fixed law, or educated reason. Youth is peculiarly full of action ungarded, since reason in the human mind develops slowly. The
power which impels youth is passion, which is as sure to drive man upon shoals and rocks, as the unstable wind a ship at sea; and, as much as the ship needs a helmsman, so much needs youth a governor.
No more inclined is the ship to follow the impulse of the wind, than youth the impulse of passion; nor is wind more unreasonable than passion. “A child left to himself bringeth his mother to shame;" and a school left to itself is a bedlam. The educated, enlightened reason of parents and teachers must always be present to guide the otherwise erring feet of children.
Government, when applied to the elements or brutes, and often to men, means merely control; but should be very differently understoood when applied to youth at the home fireside, or in the schoolroom. Those who govern youth should ever have in view the welfare of the man, and the great and important end of his existence. A child that has been merely controlled, must be controlled still; but the child that is governed will learn to govern himself. The child that has ever been borne in the arms, must be carried still; but the child that is led will soon learn to walk. The first great point in real government is to obtain we will of the governed, or, in other words, the consent of the will. The want of it in the family will bring gray hairs and sorrow, confusion and shame, in the schoolroom it will create a dogged resistance to rule, and cnltivate hatred, malice, and deceit, and will, in time, most surely overthrow the teacher's authority; and, more than all, cultivates in the heart a spirit of rebellion, and leaves the man with a fund of knowledge to be used as an engine of mischief.
It is hard, very hard, to obtain the consent of the child's will against the demands of his keen appetites, but, for a time, comparatively easy to compel him to yield. There are a thousand ways of securing apparent outward obedience, mere submission; and with this many are satisfied. He who labors for wages seeks nothing more. Many of our cotemporaries secure order, as it were, in perfection, and exhibit as thorough drill as is seen in a standing army, while there is, at the same time, as little moral growth in the heart of the pupil as in the heart of the soldier of the camp. The cold, haughty look, the face of steel, the iron arm, the scathing, biting, bitter sentence, cause pupils to crouch and cower like timid girls in a thunder storm, and by forbidding, frigid, overbearing manners, through awe, drive out every ray of natural affection, and noble, independent manliness. Such are usually led merely by ambitious motives, and, supposing the public generally look at educational interests through the blind eye, regard themselves as undiscovered in the shallowness of their labors. They labor to win, regard themselves as Alexanders, believe they
possess the only recipe to ensure success in pedagogy, which, however, they do not mean to reveal until the day of their death.
In such schools, time shows that while there is exhibited the farce of beauty, yet within there is growing a stubborn heart, full of hatred and deceit; and that, although its impulses are covered, they are not dead, and will, in time, like covered fires or sleeping volcanoes, break forth into vigorous action.
The history of our higher institutions shows conclusively that their government has failed to reach the will and win the heart. The smothered, ungoverned spirit breaks forth in fiendish, wolfish midnight powwows, plays tricks upon dignitaries in a thousand ways, acts like a wild drunken spirit, and shelters itself through secret combinations. The old style of institutions, where government is a mere iron fisted tyrant, without heart or soul, and where moral instruction and prayer are dealt out by machinery, are not worshiped as formerly, and unless they wake up with the waking world they may sleep till the world sleeps again.
We are likely to be cheated out of every thing that is dear to us, and be ourselves eaten up by educated villainy. Skillful, selfish, greedy men scramble and struggle for every high place and good thing that comes under their view, as reckless of justice as greedy, filthy harpies, or hungry, ruthless bears. These wars and nese floods of passion make men think, and sober thought tells men not to pay so dear for so poor a thing. Reflection tells the world that science, a white head, and a black heart make an old villain. Knowledge is as much an engine of good or evil as the sword. If the sword be in the hand of justice, and knowledge in the hand of wisdom, peace will be like a river and prosperity like a flood. But, that wisdom be the handmaid of knowledge, they must be cultivated together, and grow as twin sisters, and be cherished by the same tender hand. Knowledge is a much more hardy plant than wisdom. Knowledge springs from every action; wisdom from a part and folly from a part. Wisdom grows only in its own peculiar scil, and can no more be cultivated in youth without real government than wild animals can be tamed without first caging them; there is no real government that does not reach the will. Governments that secure not the hearts of the people, crumble; the king that is not beloved must be guarded by a band of armed men.
It is illwill that drives princes from their thrones, throws crowns to the dust, overturns kingdoms, and throws the world into tumult and anarchy. It has at last become a motto of the free that the government must obtain the consent of the governed.
But what a task we thus throw upon the educator. He must forget himself in the love of humanity, must sacrifice present ease and comfort for the future welfare of others, he must secure over the pupil a greater