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“But is there no way that I can let you go and still save the desks ?" “ I don't think there is, sir."

" You may lay aside your books and think about it for a while, and see if you cannot contrive some way, and I also will see if I cannot find one."

I turned away and engaged in other duties for some time, and then came back to him.

“Well, William, have you thought of any plan to save the necessity of that punishment ?" “ No sir, I cannot see how you can do anything else with me?"

Well, I have devised a plan which may possibly succeed. The boys are now to take their recess; and if, while you are out with them, you can induce them to pledge their word and honor that they will not whittle the seats or desks if you are not punished, I can let you go.”

William seemed very little encouraged by this proposition. He evidently doubted whether the boys would give such a pledge. I stated the plan in presence of them all, and then gave them their recess. As I afterwards learned, William had not the courage to ask anybody for the pledge, but one of the older boys gathered them all around him and made a stump speech in William's behalf. “ Boys” said he,

we don't any

of us want to see Will whipped, and we can prevent it by just giving our word and Lonor that we won't whittle the school house. Now what do we want to whittle the school-house for? I'd rather have a good smooth desk before me than one all cut up, and so had any of you. Besides we ought to have some pride in keeping the bouse decent as well as the master. In giving this pledge we only promise not to do what we ought not to do any way."

“If we don't give it, Will must be whipped, and then if we cut the desks we shall be whipped with bim. For my part, I am for giving the pledge with all my heart—who votes aye? He then put it to vote; and every one shouted "aye.”

William came in with the cloud gone from his face, and said that the boys had all given the pledge. Others confirmed this report, so I dismissed him to his seat, and I was as glad as he at the success of the plan.

“Bat father," interrupted Mary, "did the boys keep their promise?"

“Yes, that they did, like real men of honor, I did not have to speak again on the subject during the whole winter, and in the spring you could not find on the desks beside that one notch, anything worse than pin srratches,

"I guess,” said Henry, “they obeyed the rule better than if you had whipped William for breaking it."

“Yes, I have no doubt they did ; but what do you think made them?”

“I guess," said Mary, “It was becanse they thought more about the rule, and saw how good and reasonable it was.”

“And I guess," said little Andrew, "that they loved you more when they found out that you didn't want to whip them.”

“I think, also, said Henry, “they felt glad to have you trust thern like men, as you did when you asked William to get from them a pledge on their honor."— Maine Spectator.

A DEVELOPMENT OF THE FUNDAMENTAL NOTIONS OF

GRAMMAR;

BEING AN INTRODUCTION TO BECKER'S SCHOOL GRAMMAR.

No. III.

Translated and Modified for the Wisconsin Journal of Education.

a.

RELATIONS OF NOTIONS TO ONE ANOTHER. § 11.- The relation of Lotions to one another are either.

A. Relations of notions of activity, e.g., to bloom, to bark, to notions of a being, e.g., tree, dog; or

B. Relations of notions of being, e.g., wine, tree, to notions of an activity, eg., to drink, to bloom.

The relation of an activity to a being is: (a). A predicative relation, if the activity of the being is predicated at the moment of speaking, and the notions are by the relations joined in one thought. (§ 2.)

Ex.-The tree blooms. The dog barks. The tree is large. (6). It is an attributive relation, if the general-notion of a being is specialized (reduced to a sub-class, or individual) by the activity. ($ 4.) The notions are by this relation joined in one notion, and that the notion of a being. We call the activity referred in this way to the being, an attribute (an activity already ascribed or attributed to it.)

Ex.—The blooming tree. The barking dog. The large tree.

Remark.-In the predicative relation a thought, e. 9., the tree blooms, represents itself as an act of the speaker. (2.) in the attributive relation is represented not an act of the speaker-a thought-but a notion which has been formed by such an act, The predicative relation is expressed in part by the inflection of the re.

md. and in part by the form word to be.

B. The relation of a being to an activity is called an objective relation, if the general-notion of the activity is specialized by the being. (4.) This relation is either completing or adverbial (non-completing).

1. The objective relation is completing, if the general notion of a verb or adjective is specialized by the object, and at the same time completed by it. ($ 5). We distinguish the following particular kinds of the completing relation :

(a). The notion of activity requires for its completing an object thought as a person. ($ 10). This is called the relation of the dative.

E.c.-Obey thy father; I follow the leader; Your father serves the king.

(6). The notion of activity requires for its completion an object thought as a thing, ($ 10), and this in different ways:

1. The object is thought as a thing calling forth the activity: This is called the relation of the objective genitive.

Ex.—He is asbamed of his name ; Think of thy promise ; Hs is tired of play. 2. The object is thought as the passive object of a transitive activity. ($ 5). This is the relation of the accusative.

The child drinks milk. He plants a tree.

3. The object is thought as an effort of the activity. This is called the relation of the factitive.

He makes his house a tavern; He has become a beggar.

The completing relation is expressed sometimes by the inflection of the substantive (or pronoun); oftener by special form-words called prepositions.

II. The objective relation is adverbial, if the general-notion of the verb or adjective is reduced to a special-notion, by tue object, but is not completed by it.

Adverbial relations include the space-relation, the time-relation, the causal relation, and the relation of manner.

(a). In the space-relation we distinguish : 1. The place (where) e.g, be stands upon the mountain ; the bird sits

in the cage.

2. The direction of the activity, namely:

i. The direction whence, e.g., he comes from the mountain, the bird flies out of the cage.

ii. The direction whither : e.g., he goes up the mountain, he puts the bird into the cage.

With some verbs, as, to stand, to sit, to set, to lie, to lay, the spatial retion is completing.

news.

Ex.—He lays the keys upou the table. The light stands upon the table. The

mother lays her child in the cradle. (6.) In the time-relation we distinguished the point of time which answers to the when, e. g. at evening, the first of May; and the duration of time, (how long), e. g. He works three days. He sleeps eight hours.

If another activity is so related to the predicate, that it is thought as cotemporary with the predicate, but not as a precise determination of the time of the predicate; it is called an activity joined with the predicate. Ex.—He went thence smiling. Astonished, or with astonishment he heard the

He obeys in silence. He goes bare-headed. Better be poor with

honor, than rich with shame. (c.) Under the causal relation are incladed the ground and the aim of an activity.

In the relation of the ground we distinguish, 1. The effectual ground. Ex.-The streams are swollen by the continual storms. He has acquired a fortune

by his activity. 2. The possibie ground. Ex.-By continual storms (if the storms continue), the harvest is destroyed

With a favorable wind, (if the wind is favorable), we cross the lake in

an hour. 3. The adversation ground, i.e., the ground for the non-reality of a predicated activity. Ex.— With his great income, he has the cares of life. He goes for a walk, not

withstanding the rain. He has gone on a journey against his father's

will. The ground is called the real ground, if it causes anything to take place according to the laws of nature.

The real ground is called the active ground, if it is thought as the actually efficient ground, and the subject of the predicated activity is thought as one that suffers the effect in itself. Ex.--The grass is withered by the heat of the sun. The lead melts with the heat.

He trembles with cold The real ground is called a means, if not the ground, but the subject of the predicated activity is thought active and actually efficient, and the effect is thought as one had in view by the subject. Ex.He supports himself by the labor of his hands. He has deceired us by his

fine speeches. The real ground includes also the material of which any thing is made.

Ex.-To make bread of potatoes. To make an image of clay.

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION:

THE ORGAN OF THE

STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION,

AND OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE.

Rev. J. B. PRADT, SHEBOYGAN.

Mrs. H. S. ZOLLER, PORTAGE CITY. J. L. PICKARD, PLATTZVILLE.

Miss E. L. BISSELL, PRAIRIE DU CAIH. E. C. JOHNSON, FOND DU LAC.

Miss H. A. EVERTS, MILWAUK3). A. PICKETT, HORIOON.

Miss E. B. LOWBER, JANISVILLB. A. J. CRAIG, PALMYRA.

Miss M. A. ROBERTS, WAITEWATER.
J. G. MCKINDLEY,
MILWAUKER.

Miso K. E. DEMING, KINOSHA.
HOWARD CRAMER, LA CRO883.

RESIDENT EDITOR : A. J. CRAIG, PALMYRA.

VOLUME IV.

MADISON, WIS.:

ATWOOD, RUBLEE & REED, BOOK AND JOB PRINTERS.

CORNER OP MIFFLIN AND PINKNEY STREETS.

1860.

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