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the diagonal lines, count the number those lines make when laid as above, and if too large, replace one or two blocks by others, till the right number be found; keeping in mind that a block whose two top numbers count 66, can only be replaced by another counting the same top number; the same with the sum 64.

J. P.

Problems.

4. There are three towns A, B, and C, whose distance apart is as follows: from A to B six miles, from A to C 22 miles; and from B to C 20 miles. A messenger is dispatched from B to A, and has to call at town D in a direct line be. tween A and C. Now in traveling from B to D he walks uniformly at the rate of 4 miles an hour, and from D to A at the rate of 3 miles an hour. Supposing him to perform his journey in three hours, it is required to find the distance be tween A and D.

5. A farmer has a rectangular meadow, the longer side of which is to the shorter side, as 3 is to 2; after mowing as many swaths around it (each six feet wide) as there are acres in the meadow, the longer side of the standing grass is of the same length as the shorter side of the meaduw; required the area of the meadow.

We have received solutions of the problems given in the August Number, but have no room for them in this Number. From a hasty examination we conclude that the solu:ion of No. 1 is not quite correct - Ed.

Editorial Miscellany.

We give in this Number the proceedings of the State Teachers' Association, which held its sixth annual session at Portage City, the first week in Aug'ist.

It was an interesting and profitable session; the attendance was quite large. The lectures and essays were of a high order, and were characterized by breadth, directness, and practical common sense, and, as a whole, were superior to those usually heard on such occasions The lecture by Pres Chapin was an eloquent and able exposition of the true end of education, and of the relation to each other of the different agencies in our school system. It made a marked impression upon the large and intelligent audience who listened to its delivery.

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Prof. Bateman's lecture was a through and happy presentation of the subject of school government, abounding in apt illustrations and forcible descriptions tending to throw light upon this important branch of the teacher's duty. We have not room to speak of the other lectures and essays as they deserve, nor is it necessary, as we hope to present them entire in future Numbers of the Journal.

The citizens of Portage are worthy of particular commendation, for the entertainment so generously furnished a large body of strangers, and the vote of thanks passed by the Association, was no unmeaning formality, but a heart-felt expression of genuine feeling.

We are glad that the meeting was held at Portage, on account of the teachers and the citizens. On account of the teachers, because they have been shown in a practical way, that their efforts and labors are appreciated by the public; and on account of the citizens of Portage, because the false impressions prevalent in community concerning the locality, soil and surrounds of their pleasant city will be corrected, and it will no longer be regarded as a sand-bank, situated in the midst of a marsh, but as a pleasant, healthful, and thriving city.

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Rev. A. D. Hendrickson, for two years past principal of Whitewater Union Graded School, retires from that post, and is succeeded by a Mr. Sherman, late of Vermont. We believe Vr. H. to have been a faithful and successful teacher, and trust that the school will not lose in interest or usefulness in the hands of his

of thi

successor.

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Mr E. B. Gray has been engaged for another year as principal of Palmyra public school with an increase of salary, a practical recognition of his merits as a teacher.

We have received No. 4, vol. 1, of the Missouri Educator, and No 3, vol. 1, of the Main Teacher, and gladly put them on our exchange list as valuable additions to our educational literature.

A copy of the Cincinnati Daily Gazette, of August 12, is before us, containing a partial repórt of the proceedings of the National Teachers' Association, with the address of Prof. Daniel Read, of the Wisconsin University, in full. We shall quote from it hereafter.

We call the attention of teachers and district boards to the advertisement of maps, globes, school furniture, etc., by J. H. Rolfe, of Chicago, who makes very liberal offers to those who shall trade with him. Send for a circular giving full particulars.

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Mr. J. G. McMynn, Principal of Racine High School, left for Europe, Aug 23d. The School Board elected him Principal for anther year, at a salary of $15,000 and gave him leave of absence, to return when he pleases. We have the promise of a letter from him, from time to time, in regard to educational institutions which he may visit in his absence

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Literary Notices.

Book-Keeping by Single and Double Entry, for schools and academies, adapted to

Payson, Dunton, and Scribner's combined System of Penmanship, by L. B. Hanaford, A.M., and J. W. Payson, Principals of the Boston Mercantile Academy, Sumner Street. Published by Crosby, Nichols, & Co., 117 Washington Street, Boston.

We have receievd a copy of the above work through E. Terry & Co., Booksellers, 167 East Wate: Street, Milwaukee, and are much pleased with it. It presents in a compact form, the principles of book-keeping by single and double en

try, accompanied by plain and concise directions of great value to the student, • and a table of business forms with explanations. It is very nearly got up, and

sold at a price that puts it within the reach of all who may desire to pursue this important, but much neglected branch of study.

National Fifth Reader, containing a treatise on elocution, exercises in reading, and

declamation, with biographical -ketches and copious notes. Adapted to the use of students in English and American literature. By Richard G. Parker, and J, Madison Watson.

The First Book of Science, designed for public and private schools. By W. A.

Nortou and J. A. Porter, Professors in Yale College. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1855.

The National Fifth Reader, completes the series, a notice of which appeared in the

January Number, Vol. II. of this Journal,

It is worthy of its place in the series, being a valuable compend of the choicest gems of English literature got up in attractive style, and accompanied by a chronological list of authors, with concise biographical sketches, and explanations of classical and historical allusions. It is just the thing for advanced classes in reading.

The First Book of Science, embraces Norton's First Book of Natural Philosophy

and Astronomy (noticed in the February No., Vol. II.) and Porter's First Book of Chemistry and Allied Sciences, and is a valuable work for our district and intermediate schools, presenting the elements of natural science in a manner suited to the comprehension of children. We trust to see the time when the natural sciences will be taught in all our schools.

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AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION AT PORTAGE,

AUGUST 3D, 1858, BY PROF. CONOVER, OF THE WISCONSIN UNIVERSITY, PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION.

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:-Teachers of Wisconsin and Friends of Education. It is with pleasure that I mingle my greetings with yours as we assemble for this annual festival. You are met from various quarters of our wide-spread and beautiful State,

and of our sister States, actuated by a common sentiment, and led by a common in. í terest. You come to-day from the cities, the villages, the rural districts, over many ; a verdant mile of wood and prairie, to this central spot of our gathering, to renew

your vows of fidelity to the great interest of Popular Education, and to lay your fresh offerings upon its altar. Speaking to every one of you in the name of every other, I extend to you the hearty greetings of the hour, and invite you to prepare your minds, not only for the mutual salutations and enjoyments, but also for the graver and more serious duties of this occasion.

Your Executive Committee havc requested me to preface the discussions of the Association with some general views of a properly introductory character, relative to the whole system of public Education, its proper component parts and ther due relation to each other. The theme is too large for my abilities and too large for

my

time. In the few and disturbed hours left to me since concluding my annual duties in another sphere, I have not been able to give the subject more than a cursory and superficial attention. Yet, without further apology, I fulfill my duty as I can by laying before you such thoughts as have thus hastily presented themselves.

A perfect school system! Such is the subject assigned me. What is a school ? What is a school system? What is the ideal perfection of such a system ? and how far and how can it be realized ?

Etymologically considered, a school is a place of leisure ! Strange etymology! some of you will say, whose weary hours of toil in school, for month after month,

have rendered grateful to your overtasked bodies and brains, these summer hours of long vacation. Strange etymology! some of your pupils would say, who have found the school under your instruction, a place above all others where the love of ease must be strenuously denied, and the intellectual faculties kept for hours in a state of almost painful tension, resolutely endured in the hope of an after reward. And yet the etymological sense of the word is a true one. An ancient Latin Poet happily expresses the just paradox which it involves :

Graio schola nomine dicta est,
Justa laboriferis tribuantur ut otia Musis."

It is called a sehool from a Greek word, to indicate that there due leisure should be granted for the culture of the laborious muses. Due leisure from all those lower parts of life, from all those toils, and cares, and enjoyments over which no muse presides, that we may give due thought and labor due to those higher faculties and those nobler arts which are honored by the favor and cultivated by the inspiration of the sacred nine. Put this into the forms of modern thought, and the school will be a place where man turns aside for a time from the immediate battle with the physical necessities of life, as well as from tho immediate gratification of his physical appetites, to cultivate the inventive faculties of his mind, and the arts at once useful and embellishing to life, to which these have given birth. The school, therefore, is a place dedicated to the culture, at once, of the intellectual faculties and of the ingenious and liberal arts which require thought, invention, science, skill; a place where their principles are learned, where their laws are studied, and where they are practiced sufficiently to ensure thorough learning—for Melete, Practice, was one of the earliest Muses. The practice whose immediate end is gain ; the practice which enters directly as a component part into the great necessary contest of man with nature; the practice which makes up life's permanent business and toil, belongs not itself to the school, though it takes & higher character, and wins a wider success from that very abstinence and leisure from itself which the school has claimed; from that scienec, that skill, that cultivation of the inventive faculties, that disciplinary practice of the liberal arts which the school has furnished. Mere bodily toil, mere force of nerve and muscle and sinew, the school has nothing to do with, except to study them like other forces and prepare the scholar to put into these an intellect and a soul which shall guide them with skill, apply them to noble and fruitful social and spiritual uses, and crown them thus with a sublime success.

Such, as it seems to me, is the school in its idea. What, then, is a school system? The very phrase implies not merely multiplicity, but difference, correlation, subordination, harmony, Mere multiplication of individuals does not constitute a system; mere aggregation of units does not constitute a system. To say nothing of its etymology, the word, as we use it, implies obedience of the parts to some common law, and mutual influence and interaction. Bodies wandering at their will in space, wild, random, reckless, obedient to no common impalse, and swinging around no common center, would not be entitled to the name. But when each train of fair attendant moons moves in determinate rhythm around their common planetary orb, and all the choral band of planets tread their swift and silent dance unceasingly around a sun, their common center of attraction, light and heat, this complex combination of mutually dependnet parts, acting each upon all others, and all obedient to one general law, is

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