Зображення сторінки
[ocr errors]

been impossible to them. Such should be put into a class by themselves, and a longer indulgence allowed them; but this class should be the teacher's special care, and they should always be kept under his utmost urgency to baste, not, of course, brutally, or violently, or impatiently demonstrated. Such a course would scare timid, weak souls out of all their powers, bat promptness must be animatedly and encouragingly insisted upon, with a firm, untiring patience.

I would remark in passing, that the usual mode of classifying papils is as wrong as all the rest of the common system. They take rank by attainment in knowledge and by age, whereas power should be the condition of advancement. Some girls of seven are quite equal in mind to others of fourteen, though they may not know so much of the usual school-books. Such young minds, however, should bear the stress of study not one-fourth part of the time which those double their age could support benefically.

Having thus began to command attention, the teacher should, with every week, lengthen the task without giving more time to accomplish it in. Should any scholar be refractory, and determinedly inattentive, she might be detained after study bours until she should have written out the lessons, which would thus not be utterly lost to her. This method was successfully tried in Philadelphia by a true master of the art of teaching, whose system suggested this article.* Between each stretch of this compelled attention there should be a time of utier relaxation, and then “to it again."

Such discipline, repeated frequently in the course of the morning, and recurring every day, could not fail to strengthen the power of concentration,

The next faculty to be cultivated is the memory. In order to hold on to a thing, we must first get a good grip of it. A vivid first impression is of the utmost importance to the memory. Hence the use of attention-keen and lively. A good clear idea is hard to dislodge, while one half-seized and mingled with others of more attractive quality (such as beaux, dress, etc., which, in lessons learned at home, are apt to intrude), soon slips aside, and is nowhere to be found.

That the pupil may understand that she does not learn for mere recitation, but for all futurity, the classes should be subjected to unexpected reviews iit odd times, and a high degree of merit attached to the best answers. Learning by rote is useful both as a memory-strengthener and as forcing the mind to careful minuteness in attention. Some persons think this practice injurious, as tending to retard facility in expressing ideas. But readiness of speech may be cultivated by methods better adapted to that end than the common one of allowing the child to stumble along, murdering grammar, and losing its idea perpetually, in its search after words. Make her read, and relate to you, some entertaining story,


[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

* The late Mr. CHARLES Picot.


she will gain more facility in an hour than in a week's stammered history lessons.

After Concentration and Retention, come Analyzation and Classification of Ideas. These should be cultivated carefully, for upon them depend a sound judgment.

How can an adult mind which, from original feebleness and long indolgence in careless habits, can neither seize a vivid idea nor retain it correctly until examined, nor analyze it, nor see its connection with morals, or its relation to circumstances-how can such a mind meet even the conmon-place and cominon-sense demands of every-day life? It must fall into fatal blanders.

Think what & pernicious mother such an aninformed woman woud make, and then look about and see how many such mothers there ar. Who can wonder that precocions Young America spurns such authority, and that reverence is becoming an unknown emotion to him?

Nothing is more favorable to habits of analyzation than the study o languages and the natural sciences. But it is not necessary to wait until the mind is mature enough for these pursuits. A little girl, five years of age, can be exercised in both that and combination, by sending her out to her garden and bidding her classify its flowers—not according to the system of Linnæus, of course, but by one of her own devising. She will be obliged to note distinctive characters, define differences, and search for resemblances—thereby cultivating attention, memory, judgment. Incidentally she will also gain health and cheerfulness.

When the powers of her mind have been trained by such means into fall activity and development, and she enters into the battle of life-a woman—when mankind is her garden, where ideas, springs of action, and varieties of deed are her flowers for classifying, she will not be the easy dupe, the thoughtless, shameless flirt, the weak, anreasonable wife, the frivolous, undiscriminating mother. But seeing clearly, judging fairly, and knowing surely, she will have the firmness, confidence, and modesty which strength and wisdom give. She will be a rock of support to those depending upon her.-N. Y. Independent.

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]



The verb is a word which predicates or affirms. This affirmation or predication expresses either action, existence, or state of existence. When the affirmation expresses an action which passes to an object, the verb is

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

called transitive; when it expresses existence, state of existence, or an action which does not pass to an object, it is called intransitive. Therefore

Verbs are divided into two classes with reference to their object: transitive and intransitive.

Transitive verbs predicate an action which requires an object; intransitive verbs predicate existence, state of existence, or an action which requires no object.

Verbs are divided into classes with respect to their form: regular and irregular.

Regular verbs form the indefinite past tense, by adding d or ed to the indefinite present: irregular form the indefinite past tense by a change of

the present. $

Auxiliary verbs are those usually used in the conjugation of other verbs. They generally want some parts, and are called defective.

To verbs belong voice, mode, tense, person, and number.
Voice expresses the relation of the affirmed action to the subject.

There are two voices; the active and the passive. The active voice rei presents the subject as acting. The passive represents the subject as be

ing acted upon. The passive voice consists of the verb to be in its modes and tenses, added to the indefinite past participle. Only transitive verbs can have the passive voice, as intransitive verbs do not affirm the action as passing either from or to the subject.

Mode expresses the manner of the assertion or predication.

Verbs have five modes: the indicative, the conjunctive, the imperative, the infinitive, and the participial,

The indicative mode predicates or affirms simply and positively. The conjunctive mode predicates or affirms in a contingent or dependant manner, and is joined to the other modes by the conjunctions if, though, that, except, until, and the like. The infinitive mode is the substantive form of the verb. The participial mode is the adjective form of the verb.

The conjunctive mode has three forms: the regular, the potential, and the older forms. The regular form expresses a simple contingency; the potential form expresses dependence upon a contingency; and the older form is sometimes used in place of the regular form.

Tense expresses the time of the action or affirmation.
There are three primary divisions of time: past, present, and future.

Each of these divisions of time may be expressed indefinitely, or without. any regard to the time of the action except as past, present, or future This gives us three tenses: indefinite present, indefinite past, and indefinite futare.

Each of the primary divisions may be expressed relatively, or with reference to some other time expressed or understood. This give us the rele ative present, relative past, and relative future tenses.

Indefi Imper Relatie Imperf



The action expressed by the indefinite and relative tenses, may be considered as still continuing, or as imperfect. This gives the following tenses: imperfect indefinite present, imperfect relative present, imperfect indefinite past, imperfect relative past, imperfect indefinite future, and imperfect relative future.

[Wo omit a more extended definition of the tenses here, as we shall be understood by the above.]

The indicative mode has all the tenses; the conjunctive mode, regular form, has all; in the potential form, the relative, and imperfect relative past tenses, and the future tenses; in the earlier form, the indefinite, and imperfect indefinite present tenses, and the imperfect indefinite past. The imperative mode has only the indefinite present. The infinitive mode has all the present tenses. The participial mode has the indefinite and relative present and the indefinite past.

The number and person of the verb express its relation to the subject; and like the subject, verbs have two numbers and three persons, corresponding to the number and person of nouns and pronouns.

CONJUGATION is an inflection of the verb to express action in the different modes and tenses, and to conform it to the number and person of its subject.

The principal parts of the verb are the indefinite present, the indefinite past indicative, and the indefinite past participle.

Paradigm of the verb to love.

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]





It wil olaci wh te

20 DE waliar

INDICATIVE MODE. Indefinite present.

I love. Imperfect indefinite present.

I am loving. Relative present.

I have loved. Imperfect relative present.

I have been loving. Indefinite past.

I loved. Imperfect indefinite past.

I was loving. Relative past.

I had loved. Imperfect relative past.

I had been loving. Indefinite future.

I shall or will love. Imperfect indefinite fature.

I shall be loving. Relative future.

I shall have loved. Imperfect relative future.

I shall have been loving.

[blocks in formation]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

in the i

Person :

[ocr errors]

Indefinite present.

Relative present.

Having loved. Imperfect relative present.

Having been loving. Indefinite past.

Loved. [The imperfect tenses are by some made a separate conjugation, called the progressive or imperfect form.] lored It will be seen that we have departed from the usual habit of writers

in placing the tenses of the potential form in the past and future. It is, in such tenses, only the contingency which is present, the action always being considered as past or future. The writer would be pleased to have the peculiarities of the above discussed.



WHILE it is admitted that to him who is about to make a debut in school teaching, in any place, a testimonial of a good character and education from an academy, a college, or some popular seminary, may be of essential service, or may operate favorably to the instruction of even the experienced teachere, among strangers, yet the community should not re* gard this, as the chief, or the best, or even an essential reliance, concerning him who has been much engaged in teaching. Of him we may appro


« НазадПродовжити »