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It is written in an easy familiar style, is beautifully illustrated, and contains nineteen maps, giving the outlines of the principal countries on the globe, with capitals, rivers, and a few chief towns, etc.
A Practical Guide to English Pronounciation for the Use of Schools, and Alphabeti
cal Recitation List to accompany the pronouncing guide. By Edward J. Stearns, A.M. Boston: Crosby, Nichols, & Co., 117 Washington Street.
These small, unpretending works contain a large amount of useful matter, and would be of great service if introduced into all our schools.
The former contains over five thousand words in common use, which are liable to be mispronounced, accompanied with rules and directions for their correct pronunciation. Also, an alphabetical list of the words given in the body of the work, divided into syllables, and the accent marked. The latter work consists of the same alphabetical list without the division of the words into syllables, or the accents, and is to be used by the student in reciting his lesson after having learned it in the other work. The use of these books would do much to break up bad habits already formed by older pupils, and prevent their formation by the younger pupils in our schools,
Elements of Mechanics, for the use of Colleges and Academies. By Wm. G. Peck,
M.A., Adjunct Professor of Mathematics, Columbia College. New York: A. S. Barnes & Burr, 51 and 53 John Street, 1859.
This new work, from the hands of Professor Peck, is designed to occupy an in. termediate position between the elementary works on Natural Philosophy and the extendes treatises on mechanics hitherto used in colleges.
In the preface the author, in stating his experience in teaching Natural Philosophy to college classes, says:
“The higher treatises were found too difficult to be read with profit, except by a few in each class; and the simpler treatises were found too elementary for advanced classes, and, on account of their non-mathematical character, not adapted to prepare the student for subsequent investigations. The present volume was designed to occupy the middle ground between these two classes of works, and to form a connecting link between the elementary and the higher treatises. It was designed to embraced all of the important propositions of elementary mechanics, arranged in logical order, and each rightly demonstrated.”
A careful examination of the work has convinced us that the author has sucs ceeded in his design, and has presented in this work an amount of information in regard to the elementary principles of mechanics, illustrated by copious examples, which commends the book to all our high schools, academies, and colleges, as just the thing they want. It is got up with the neatness and taste which characterize the publications of the well known firm (late A. S. Barnes & Co., now A. S. Barnes & Burr) whose imprint is on the title page
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A very poor Patent Medicine requires a very strong “WRITING UP" to Make it
We candidly stateil a fact in an advertisement in this Journal for January, 1859, concerning the manner in which W. B. Smith & Co. did, in a circular, make Hon. Lyman C. Draper's recommendation of School Books for this State, read so as to place their books first on his list, whereas the recommendation of the Eclectic Books was only SECONDARY in every instance. W. B. Smith & Co. do not deny their unfairness in the matter, but become rabid in reply in the February Number of the Journal, and rail at us in most miserable taste.
Had we hashed over and changed the numbers of our Readers, naming the 2d the 3d, the 3d the 4th, aud so through the series, ad ding only a few pieces for the sake of appearance, and called them “Neu Readers" had we changed the type and the covers of our Arithmetics, and left the text untouched, calling them “Revised Arithmetics," we might deem it necessary to write them up as well as we could, in flaming advertisements, and savage attacks upon every thing of the kind; but having made our books new and UP TO THE TIMES in all respects, having employed the best talent upon them, and spared no expense to render them worthy of attention, and use on their own merits, we are willing to leave the books to speak for themselves, which they are doing every day.
The NATIONAL READERS AND SPELLERS are rapidly being adopted by the best schools, not only in Wisconsin, but throughout the Union.
DAVIES' MATHEMATICAL SERIES still stands at the head in this department of text-books, in the colleges, academies, and common schools of the whole United States. This series has received a valuable addition in the NEW UNIVERSITY ALGEBRA, just published a book all who examine admire
We only ask Teachers and Boards to procure these books, examine and compare them, in respect to listerary merit, durability. and price with others of the same kind, and we feel not the slightest "Alarm" as to what will be the result.
We wish to state, further, that in onr Advertisement in the Journal, in which W, BS & Co. complain that we did not print the whole list recommended, we only proposed to insert such of our books as were in Dr. Draper's list, and so fairly stated. For Descriptive Catalogue, or any books of the NATIONAL
SERIES, please address, A. S. BARNES & BURR, 51 and 53 John St., N.Y.
We take it for granted that there is a rational order of development in the course of the sciences, and that it ought to be followed in the course of common education. Starting from those assumptions, we seek to find what that order is, and arrive at the conclusion that there are five great studies for the human spirit-Mathesis, Physics, History, Psychology, and Theology-which must be pursued in the order in which we have here named them. This circle of five points must be embraced in every scheme of education, whether for the nursery, the subprimary school, the primary school, the grammar school, the high school, or the college. No one of them is to be omitted, in any school, until the student enters the professional school in which he is to prepare directly for the exercise of his profession or calling in life.
We also take it for granted that there is a natural order of development in the human powers, and that studies should be so arranged as to develop the powers in this order. Starting from this assumption, we arrive at the conclusion that the ability to receive impressions, that is, the perceptive power, first shows itself; next, & power to conceive or imagine; thirdly, the power of reasoning; fourthly, the power to decide and act apon the decisions of reason. Moreover, these faculties are called out in their
proper order of development by taking the five branches of study in their proper order
and this barmony of the results of our two lines of in. quiry is a presumptive proof of their correctness.
These are the conclusions at which we have arrived, and which we propose to illustrate somewhat at length in the present paper. Their great breadth and generality, and the demand which they make, upon those who accept them, to change the whole character of oar education from the hour of the child's birth to the day of his gradation from college, must be our apology for the length of our remarks, and for our request that the reader should not dismiss them from his mind without a candid consideration of their value.
It is manifest that the faculties which are first developed should be first exercised by a judicious training. It is true that, in one sense, all the faculties are developed together—that glimmerings of reason, and faint indications of a will, are perceived in the youngest infant. Thus, also, in education, the child is to be treated from the beginning as a reasonable and free agent. But the perceptive powers become perfected in their action long before the reason is matured, or the will strongly developed. For the first few years of a child's lite its principal occapation is that of learning to recognize material things by their forms. This natural education in geometry begins through the eye at the age of a few days; and, during the whole of childhood, the attention is strongly directed to those characteristics of bodies which appeal to the senses. By the age of fitteen the perceptive powers are frequently in their highest state of development. The powers of imagination are not usually manifested at all until the age of two or three years; never in a distinct form before the age of seven or eight months, and seldom, it ever, attain their fullest vigor before the age of twenty. The reasoning powers can not usually be shown to exist entirely distinct from the other faculties antil the age of ten or twelve years, and seldom reach their perfection before the age of thirty. The will manifests itself, and comes to maturity no earlier than the power of reasoning.
Hence, nature herself indicates that the studies of the child should fol. low in such succession that his perceptive powers should first be exercised more than any other; that his imaginative powers should next be called into play; and that those studies which require reasoning, and those which treat of his responsibilities, should not be given him at too early an age. A man must first learn facts, then conceive hypotheses, before he can reason of abstract truths, and deduce laws of duty.
It is also self-evident that there must be a natural sequence or order of truths, or, as it has been called, a hierarchy of sciences. In our view of the whole field of knowledge, we see it divided into five great branches; Mathesis, Physics, History, Psychology, and Theology. Theology treats of the ancreated Creator, and of our special relations to Him. Psychology treats of man, who may be called the created creator. History deals with the thoughts and deeds of men; that is, with the creations of the created. Physics treat of the material world, that is, of the creations of the uncreated, with the creation in the usual sense of that word. Physics thus bear the same relation to Theology that History does to Psychology, and may
hence be called Natural History. Mathesis treats of that field of space and time in which the deeds of History and of Natural History are wrought; that is, if we consider time and space as having objective reality, Mathesis deals with the uncreating uncreated.
Now, all possible objects of human thought are comprised under one or another of these five heads, and these five stadies logically precede each other in the order we have indicated. Mathematics must precede Physics, because conceptions of form, time, and number, necessarily precede any conceptions of material phenomena, which are subject to the laws of form, time and number. In other words, Mechanics treats of motion in straight lines or in curved orbits, of the transfer of force in various directions subject to the conditions of geometry, of the strength of materials in various forms, and of the adaptation of those forms to the purposes of art; all of which implies geometrical knowledge. Chemistry deals with definite proportions, with the laws of multiples, and of combinations, so that it neces. sarily requires a knowledge of arithmetic. Botany and Zoology in their morphology require both geometry and arithmetic; in their physiology, chemistry, and in both departments, mechanics.
As Mathematics thus necessarily precede Physics, so Physics must precede History. All that men do must be done in this world of ours, upon these materials set before us, while subject to the conditions of our material frame. All the thoughts of men must be expressed either by word, by symbol, or by a work of art; and of these even words imply a knowledge of the outward world, for all words were originally figurative. Hence, every historical study must be preceded by the knowledge of a certain amount of physical truth, that is, of Natural History. We might add that while the deeds of men are wrought by physical agents, a great deal of the thought of man has been expended upon physical theories ; so that a just appreciation of human thought and action requires a knowledge of that material world which has been the theatre of men's actions, and the object of so many of their thoughts.
Again, Psychology requires a knowledge of Physiology and of History. We know nothing of the human soul save through its actions, interpreted by our own consciousness; including in its actions its thoughts as uttered in words. Lastly, Theology requires & knowledge of Psychology and of Natural History. For we can know nothing, by nature, concerning the Creator, in whose image we are made, except by first studying his works, and especially that image of Himself which He has placed within us. We may have religion with but little theology, but we can not have any theology at all, without some previous knowledge of ourselves, and of the other works of God.
It must be evident, therefore, that the Mathematics logically take the lead as the great and indispensable foundation of all learning. It is not only impossible to dispense with them, but impossible to place them any where else than at the beginning of all intellectual education. No man can