« НазадПродовжити »
b. The past, as the relation of an activity which has preceded the presence uf the speaker, e.g.:
When I saw the tree, it was blooming. The child has slept.
The future, as the relation of an activity following the presence of the speaker, e.gi:
The tree will bloom. The child will sleep. The time-relations of the predicate are expressed
a. By special conjugation-forms of the verb, which are called tenses. These are either simple or compounded with special form-words, which are called auxiliaries of tense.
The tree bloom-ed. The child fell. The tree has bloom-ed. The
child had fallen, etc. 6. By special form-words, which are called adverbs of time.
The child sleeps now. He will come soon. 3. In the space-relation of the predicate we distinguish.
The place of the activity, in so far as it is denoted as near to or far from the speaker, by here and there (yonder).
Here stood the shepherd, there lay his dog, and yonder were the
sheep. b. The place of the activity, in so far as it is referred to the space-relation of the speaker, and is denoted according to the antitheses of above and below, before and behind, within and without, by special adverbs of space, e.g.: over, under—and by prepositions, e.g.: over and under, (see $ 14.)
Above are chambers, below is a cellar, etc. C. The direction of the motion, according as it is denoted as direction toward the speaker, or turned from the speaker, by the adverbs of direction, hither and thither. Come hither. Go thither.
4. Under the quantity-relation of the predicate are comprised its intensity and its frequency.
The relation of the intensity, i.e., of the inward greatness and streugth of the activity, is of two kinds, to-wit: a. Absolute, if it is conceived absolutely, without comparison.
The flower is very beautiful. He is extremely modest. He has treated me most kindly. . Comparative, if the activity in respect of its intensity is compared with another activity, or with the same activity in another subject.
He speaks more than he thinks. The speech is more entertain
ing than convincing. He speaks more than his brother. He is the
best of all. The relation of intensity is denoted. a. By form-words: I wonder much. He scarcely moves. 6. By that inflection of the adjective which is called comparison.
This dog is larg-er than a sheep-the largest of all. The frequency, i.e., the repetition of the same activity is denoted by form-words. (See $ 14.)
I have often seen him, but have seldom spoken with him. He
visits me sometimes. The notions of the being are related to the speaker, which in the being, the personal relation, the demonstrative relation, person and thing, gender and the quantity-relation are distinguished.
1. Under the personal relation is comprised that relation of the being, according to which it is thought either as the speakiug person (I), or as a person spoken to (thou), or as a being spoken of (he, she, it.)
This relation is denoted by special form-words, which are called personal pronouns; e.g.: thou, she, it, and by the inflectional forms of the verbs, which are called the personal forms of the verb; eg.: I am, thou art, he is, thou speak-est, he speak-eth.*
These relations, thus distinguished, are called the grammatical persons first, second, third.
2. The demonstrative relation comprises those relations of a being spoken of, to the person speaking, by which it is distinguished from every other being spoken of. This relation is denoted by form-words, which are called demonstratives.
I know that one. I give this to you. This stone is an opal. Such a tree bears no fruit.
The demonstrative pronoun (Ger, der, die, das)t is generally joined with common nouns ($ 6) in order to mark the being meant by the speaker as a definite individual of the whole class ; and the pronoun is then called the definite article.
The beicg meant by the speaker is marked as an indefinite individual of
* Few, indeed, in English. - Tr.
+ In English the article (the) differs in form from the demonstrative (that). As in other ton. gues the demonstrative is the older word. As an and a have arisen out of one, so has the arisen out of that (Saxon thaet), or from some common root. So from the Latin ille come Italian il, la, lo; Spanish el, la, lo; French la, la. The man is less definite than that man, as a man is less definite than one man.-Tr.
its class by a or an (originally a numeral) which is called the indefinite article.
The speaker often asks of a person spoken to that he mark a being spoken of, and distinguish it from every other being spokea of by a demonstrative relation. The demonstrative relation put into question is then also denoted by special form-words, corresponding to the demonstrative pronouns, and called interrogative pronouns.
Whom knowest thou? (Him). What do you give me? (This or
that.) Which stone is an opal? (This.) 3. Man distinguishes in objects which he sees, persons, self-active like himself, and things, not self-active, but related passively to the self-active being. Language denotes this distinction in many ways, in word-forms, and forms of construction.
Whom do you seek? What do you seek? I am looking for somebody, nobody, and something, nothing. I need him. I need it.
I think of him. I think thereof, etc. 4. We distinguish in persons natural gender, as masculine and feminine. Things have no natural gender.
The distinction of gender is denoted in speech partly by different names, partly by difference of termination, and especially by the personal pronouns of the third person.
Man, woman; father, mother; abbott, abbess; he, she, it. Remark.-We distinguish natural gender in beasts, which stand in some way nearer to
5. The quantity-relation of the being is perceived by us in two ways, namely:
1. As number, if more and fewer individuals of the same class are thought. ($ 6.) The number is denoted
a. In a general way as one or more by the inflectional forms of number. The form denoting one is called the singular, that denoting more than one is called the plural. b. In a special way, by special form-words, which are called numerals.
A tree, trees; the book, the books : two trees, many trees. 2. As quantity, if the being is thought as homogenous matter, without distinction of individuals. ($ 6.) The quantity is denoted by special formwords.
Some wine, much wine, little wine.
THERE are two great schools, in one of which we are all scholars, and all teachers. Men, women, and children here must teach, here must learn, and here must graduate. Some are carelessly neglecting every gooà lesson and learning every bad one; always tardy or never present at the school of right; always punctual at, and never absent from the school of wrong. Never heeding, yet always teaching to others the lessons they have so carelessly learned. At the school of right lessons are sometimes learned slowly and only by persevering effort, sometimes by an overwhelming wave of experience a long stride is taken in education. From the moment our eyes first open upon the light of this world, until we close them, that we may see the invisible things of eternity, we are learning and growing wiser for good or for evil. And from the moment we first act freely and willingly, we teach, antil, by an ivglorious or by a triumphant death, we give our last lesson and pass to our “last examination.”
But, in a more emphatic sense some of us are teachers. Rightly entered upon and rightly followed, ours is truly a worthy, a noble, and indeed a holy calling, but how has it been degraded ; alas ! how is it now degraded. Men and boys enter upon the duties and assume the almost boundless responsibilities of school teaching for eighteen dollars a month," and some do it even because they are too lazy to dig potatoes or chop wood, and “tell it not in Gath,” young women have taken upon themselves the risks of ruining mind and souls, because some people think it not quite so genteel to wash dishes and mop floors; may God have mercy on them. But there are those who with some sense of the fearful responsibilities they invoke, some appreciation of powers for good or evil they take into their hands, come to the work, not drawn by the glitter of a years salary -not attracted by the ease or emoluments of the office, but impelled by the hope that they can thus best fill their niche in the wide world of usefulness, and add their unit to the scale where hangs balancing the weal and woe of humanity. “Who is sufficient for these things ?” Who with patient endurance can bear the sorrows and trials of a teacher's life. Not they, surely, who look for their reward here. They only who look to see the clay statues their unskillful hands wrought, transformed to angels of light by the touch of the invisible hand of God, at whose command they have done what they could. Teachers ! you who with fresh hearts and untried hands have but just now put your shoulders to the wheel, there are discouragements, disappointments, tears in store for you.
You may try to polish your marble, but often and often it will crum. ble. You will look for the fruit of your labor and wecds only will sometimes seem to have grown from the seed you have scattered. Those under your care will come to seem part and parcel of yourself, and when they stumble in the path of virtue, or turn aside to other paths, you will suffer as surely and as keenly as if your hand or eye had offended. Will you now go forward ? Then ask for a purified soul, for an overcoming patience, for an untiring zeal, and God speed and bless you. But it is not all darkness and trial before. Oh, no! the pleasures, the delights, far outweigh the sorrows, and they will be revealed to you. Work patiently, and though you see but weeds, be sure the flowers are blossoming, and their fragrance is ascending to heaven. If your clay crumbles, work bat the more softly and patiently. “Go carve me a statue, one pure and rare !" said a king to an artist. The artist want, but having no marble, he did the best he might with clay. Then ashamed and grieved because it was only clay, he carried it to the king. “ Where is my statue?” demanded the king in anger.
“Have you brought one of clay only?” The artist fell apon his face and wept, telling the king how long and untiringly he had striven to make it worthy of his acceptance. “Then, since you had nothing but clay, look,” said the king, “ I will make it worthy of a place in my palace,” and he touched the statue, and lo! it became pare marble. And thus may it be with the work from your bands, since 'tis for the King of Paradise you are moulding in clay for want of marble. E. L. B.
Office of Supt of Public Instruction,
MADISON, March, 1859.
NOTICE TO TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS.
Town Superintendents will please forward to this Office, immediately after the election, the name and address of their successors in office. By complying with this request they will ensure the receipt of proper Blanks