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sible to teach morality without the direct use of the Bible is the public school, the only place, the teacher the only agent, and the few minutes which precede the daily tasks of the school.room the only opportunity for training our children in vir tue and goodness? Have we not parental instruction, the family altar, the Sabbath-school, the Bible class, and the preached word, on which to rely, and shall we forget all this, and blindly, foolishly seek to overturn our cherished free school systems, because we can not, in scme instances, use them as direct agencies in the moral training of our children? Shall we, like the foolish women in the fabie
, whose hen laid the golden egg, looge what we have by grasping after more? Shall we drive the children of the ignorant, the prejudiced, and the bigoted
, into the streets, and shut up our school-houses, or rely upon voluntary effort to educate those who are soon to take into their hands the destinies of our country?
We shall look for the report of the committee appointed by the Synod of New York with a good deal of interest, but we trust the day is far distant when ang branch of the Protestant Church in this country shall unite with Archbishop Hughes and the Romish Church in decrying the crowning glory of our institutions -free schools.
KENOSHA.- We learn, from the Tribune and Telegraph, that the Grand Jury of Kenosha County visited the High School in the City of Kenosha, early in last month, by invitation of the Superintendent, and they state, in a card published in the columns of the Telegraph, that “they were highly pleased with the good order of the school, and the management of the school-rooms. That the deportment of the scholars excited our admiration, and the teachers gave evidence of pe« cular fitness for their profession, especially would we mention Mr. Conatty, the Principal, for his gentlemanly bearing; and that we regard him as admirably quali: fied for the responsible position he holds."
Mr. Conatty, has been but a short time in the State, but he is highly spoken of by all who have made his acquaintance, and we feel assured that the more be is known, the greater will be his reputation as a teacher.
The Tribune states that the session of the Grand Jury was a very short one, and intimates that the morals of the county are not in a very bad condition, a state of things which we should expect in a community where so much interest is manife sted in their schools.
We are obliged to omit the Mathematical Department this month, and postpone notices of the following books, received since our last issue: Monteith's History of the United States; Smith's Juvenile Speller ; Robinson's Algebras and Intellectual Arithmetic.
MAGAZINES.—We will furnish the Atlantic Monthly, or Harper, with the Journal for $3,00 a year, and Arthur's Home Magazine, with the Journal, for $2,25.
See notice of Renton's Abridgement of the Debates of Congress, in our adver tising columns
A LECTURE DELIVERED BEFORE THE STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, AUGUST 5TH,
1858, AT PORTAGE CITY, WISCONSIN, BY 8. H. CARPENTER.
THERE are two great leading ideas of the present: First; the idea of individual equality; and second, the idea of individual responsibility. The * government guarantees the first. To properly secure, and teach how to siis properly use, the other, is the province of education. And by education I
mean not only that instruction imparted in school-houses, academies, and colleges, but whatever tends to develop the mind of man. As the idea of a republican government is that of individual equality, so this idea of universal education is the embodiment, the illustration, and motive force as well, of the principle of individual responsibility.
Since the government secures to us individual equality, all we have to do is to guard our institutions from innovation. Having all, it should be our effort to keep what we have. But the idea of individual responsibility, and the importance it attaches to every citizen, renders necessary some means of making the citizen capable of understanding his position, and of fitting him for the discharge of duties it imposes upon him. This is the work of education. And here we have not only to keep what we have, but our whole business is to invent and adapt means to certain ends. We do not, as in the science of government, start with certain fixed, immutable, and acknowledged principles, the same in all conditions of the race, unaltered by circumstances; but we begin with youth, differing in mental capacity, affected by circumstances of birth, habit, and previous education, and endeavor to bring them up to the stature of manhood, fitted for the position which the citizen of a free government occupies. Hence the great
diversity of the means employed, and the consequent differences in theories of education.
The means of education are many. We are educated by text-books and teachers. We are educated by pulpits and presses. We are educated—far more than we imagine—by the influence of public sentiment. We are educated by what we see, by at we hear, by what we su educated by our fireside conversation, by our daily walks, by looks, words, and motions. The locomotive is a more powerful and general educator than the calculus. The telegraph teaches more than books on chemistry. The professor, or the lecturer may have a large audience, but these have an audience stretching from Maine to Texas. Take away the steam-engine and the telegraph, and you have taken away from the common people more than a hundred years of intellectual growth. The means of education are many, but the myriad sided mind of man is adapted to them all.
Although these appliances are so numerous, and the influences which tend directly to our development so multitudinous, the world chiefly relies upon books as the most important means of education.
We gather from books what has already been known. The science of centuries, and the garnered wisdom of our race, are there hoarded for our
In order to avoid beginning where men began a thousand years ago, we must learn what has already been discovered. It is thus that books become a powerful aid in education. But if we would go beyond, 'we - must interrogate nature. If we confine our attention simply to acquiring the knowledge that others have gained, books are all we need; but if we would acquire power to walk alone into the boundless fields of knowledge, and reap from the fruitful soil a harvest for ourselves, we must not only acquire the riches and thoughts which others have garnered and given us, but must develop within ourselves the power of original thought. The learning we gather from books is very properly termed acquirement; the education which gives as the power of acquiring from nature, is a development.
There are, consequently, two kinds of education. The one consists in crowding the memory with what has been discovered—with rules, theor. ems, and undigested facts—resting satisfied if the arner can recite the lesson glibly. The other consists in using the knowledge in books merely as a basis upon which to build. It is a development of the mind—not so much an acquisition, as a power of acquisition-not so much a memorizing as a mentalizing.
There con be no real education if the mind be only a passive recipient, even of the hoarded treasures of the world's wisdom. There must be & mental activity, and the greater activity as the amount of material to be
ssimilated is greater. Our education, the extent of our knowledge, can not go beyond the limits of our personal ideas, and memorizing the ideas of others does not make them ours. A man may possess the contents of a library in his memory, and yet be uneducated. A mere acquaintance with
facts does not give us an education. If we have only acquired the ideas of others, we are doing business on borrowed capital, and have no real invest
ment of our own. All education, then, is self-education. It is not bookthe learning, nor teacher-learning. We have put the ideas and notions of the
world into the crucible of our mind, and fused them into a belief of our
But education is too frequently made to consist of the exercise of acquiring facts and the ideas of others. Perhaps in our anxiety to seize hold of the
most conspicuous means of education, we have mistaken the readily noI ticeable for the real; the easiest for the best method of instruction, * Knowledge does not inhere in the memory; it inheres in the mind. But
we have loaded the memory, and left the mind undeveloped. We have forsaken the established rule of nature, and reap the consequences in the
obstacles we meet—in finding a hearty distaste for study to be overcome. da Education, if pursued naturally, is as natural and instinctive to the mind
as growth, or satisfying hunger is to the body. Can we believe that the Great Author of the universe, when he made man in his own likeness, made him with an instinct to preserve his body, but at the same time carsed his God-like and God-given intellect with a tendency, if not a positive instinct, toward self-destruction? It would be blasphemy thus to be lieve.
But how comes it to pass that we so generally find among the young a distaste for the severe and constant, though pleasant, labor required in this development? There can be but one reason. We have forsaken the path of nature. We have made education the dreary task of acquiring other men's ideas, and reduced by so doing the labor of education to the reluctant task of the slave. We have too far abandoned the end of educa
tion, and have sought a miserable and unworthy compensation, by adding thing to the means. In a word, we do not make education & MENTAL POSSES
We make it only a possession of the memory-a borrowed thingheld by the feeblest of all tenures, and go through the world with the disgraceful yoke of the borrower forever apon, our necks. We have been making education merely a theory-a theory of growth! We have cxaltau it above the common concerns of life—for the acquisition of ideas is not their application. We make pupils mental misers, burying the given talent in the earth of a deadened intellect, instead of patting their thoughts out to ustry in this busy world. We have begotten a race of educated dilettanti, whose sentences fall upon a subject like the playful tapping of a lady's fan, rather than the sturdy blows of a strong man's arm.
Says Locke: “There are those who are very assiduous in reading, and yet do not much advance their knowledge by it. They dream on in a constant course of reading and cramming themselves, but not digesting any thing, it produces nothing but an heap of crudities. If their memories retain well, one may say they have the materials of knowledge; but like those for building, they are of no advantage, if there be no other use
made of them but to let them lie heaped up together.” And again: “We are of the ruminating kind, and it is not enough to cram ourselves with a load of collections. Unless we chew them over again, they will not give us strength and nourishment.” And again, from this acute philosopher: "The memory may be stored, and the judgment be but little better; and the stock of knowledge is not increased by being able to repeat what others have said."
We may, indeed, be possessed of the ideas, and it is undoubtedly necessary so to be; but we must not continually hold the ideas of others as the ideas of others. There must be an assimilation. We must digest these ideas until we make them ours—held by the mind with an undoubting grasp—held as a real mental possession.
But how can this assimilating process be assisted? There is a world of ideas without us; there is a capacity for development within; how can the mind apprehend these ideas—make them enter into its substance, and further its growth? This is the problem to be solved—not so much what course of study shall be pursued, or what text-books shall be used.
Memory is of ase in furnishing the mind with ideas to work with and upon-with tools, so to speak. Yet you may farnish a man tools, but that does not make him a mechanic. Unless the tools become the instruments of his mind, and act as aids to exhibit in material form the conceptions of his intellect, they are only a dead, dangerous weight to him—, positive incambrance. You may give the farmer choice seeds, but that will not insure a good crop. The seed may be good; the soil may be fertile; but unless the seed is properly sown, and the soil properly cultivated, the good seed and the fertile soil are barren as a desert. Now educating the memory, by the simple acquisition of facts, is like putting tools in the hands of a man who knows not their use; doing him no service, and perhaps a positive injury. Or it is like presenting the farmer with seeds, concerning whose cultivation he knows nothing.
There is an analogy in the natural world : There is food without us, and a capacity for food within ; how shall the body apprehend properly these 0.0.vents of its growth? By a simple reception of them That were useless without an assimilating process, by which they become a part of itself. Now loading the memory, merely, is like loading a hungry man's pockets with food, and bidding him be satisfied. In neither case are the elements of growth assimilated. Ideas are the natural food for the mind, and to fulfill their use they must be assimilated by the mind. If ideas are simply held by the memory, they are easily and soon lost; but if they, by being assimilated, inhere in the mind, and thus become an integral part of the mind itself, they can never be lost. This is a practical education-no matter how acquired—no matter where or when obtained—if ideas by assimilation form a part of the mind, they form a practical education.
We are all of us, perhaps, too apt to consider the simple acquisition of ideas an education. From long castom this notion has popularly acquired