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1st. Model instruction in a model school connected with the high school of each town, or other high school district, together with suitable encour. agement to pupils who aspire to become teachers.

2d. Efforts at self-improvement, in Town Associations of Teachers, assembling weekly at the central school, under the direction of the Princi. pal of the High School.

3d. Semi-annual Institutes, held under the direction of the County Superintendent, and aided by the State.

4th. An Itinerant Normal Faculty, who, in conjunction with the County Superintendent, shall give instruction in the Institutes.

5th. Normal Academies, furnishing a thorough academic or disciplinary course of instruction, but aiming especially to impart both the general and technical ability to teach.

6th. A Normal School of a high order, as a State Institution, and forming one of the several schools that make up a complete university.

AMERICAN NORMAL SCHOOL ASSOCIATION.

Tuis Association originated in a Convention held in New York city, August 30th, 1855, and annual meetings have since been held at Springfield in 1856, and at Albany in 1857. The last meeting was at Norwich, Conn., August 18th and 19th, during the session of the American Institute of Instruction. A Constitution, prepared by & Committee appointed year previous, was presented by Prof. Alpheus Crosby, and was adopted, with some modifications.

After a free discussion, the Association was fully organized, and measares were initiated which, it is believed, will secure its permanence and efficiency. The importance of such an Association was forcibly urged by the President, Wm. F. Phelps, of Trenton, N. J., J. W. Buckley, of New York, Prof. Alpheus Crosby, Geo. N. Bigelow, and J. W. Dickinson, of Mass., Prof. N. W. Camp, of Coan., Richard Edwards, of St. Louis, and others.

The Normal School system is still new in this country. It is not yet quite twenty years since the oldest Normal School in America (that now at Framingham, Mass.) was established. Their number has multiplied very rapidly within a few years, and no former year has witnessed the

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AMERICAN NORMAL SCHOOL ASSOCIATION,

146

Foundation of so many of these important institutions as the last year. They are no longer an experiment. In Massachusetts, where they have peen most thoroughly tested, and where time has developed their results most fully, they have been steadily advancing in public confidence, as the eople have become more practically acquainted with the actual working of the system, and its influence upon the public schools. Among other inlications of this growing sentiment may be mentioned the fact that the

iggregate attendance in the four Normal Schools of Massachusetts, is now zreater than at any former period.

The Normal School is now regarded, widely through the country, as inlispensable to every complete system of public instruction. They are albready established in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York,

New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and in the cities of Boston, New York, Brooklyn, Newark, St. Louis, New Orleans, and others. The next Legislature of Missouri will probably establish a Normal School, and measures are in progress which promise similar results at an early day in other States.

In view of the recent origin and rapid increase of our Normal Schools, and the consequent want of a mature personal experience in their management, it is essential to their highest efficiency that their instructors should maintain an association for professional improvement.

Many fundamental points in reference to the distinctive character and specific aim of the Normal School, the methods of instruction, the terms of admission, the length of the prescribed course of study, the prominence given to the theory and art of teaching, etc., demand investigation. A

comparison of views on these and other equally important questions, bringSing together the results of the varied experience of those actually in the uj work in different parts of the country, where different methods are adoptpod, can not but render a valuable service to the cause of Normal School Instruction.

The next meeting of the Association will occupy two days, and will be held in July next, at Trenton, New Jersey. The exercises will consist of lectares, essays, and discussions. FC

By order of the Association. SAXONVILLE, Mass., 1858.

B. G. NORTHRUP, Secretary.

KEEP Busy. There is nothing like keeping busy, if you would avoid 3; that most terrible of all fiends, Ennui. The Count de Caylus, a French

nobleman, who might have been wholly idle, took to engraving gems, and when asked his reason, answered, “I engrave, that I may not hang my. of self."

NORMAL SOHOOL.

It is gratifying to the Board of Regents of Normal Schools of the State to be able to say that the Board were so fortunate as to secure the attend. ance of the Hon. Henry Barnard, of Conn., at their meeting on the 5th inst. A resolution was unanimously passed at this meeting tendering to Mr. Barnard the office of agent of the Board in preparing and carrying out a complete and thorough system of Normal instruction, in all of its branches and departments, so as to reach, by its direct influence, every school district in the State. Mr. Barnard has not yet accepted the position, although the Board have strong hopes that he may be induced to do so. He has, however, consented to prepare a system or plan of operations for the Board, and for this special work we know of no other man so thoroughly and eminently qualified.

If Mr. Barnard should finally be induced to make our State his home, and devote his energies to the cause of general education, Wisconsin may look forward with confidence to a day not distant, when she sball stand in the front rank in all that pertains to an enlarged, sound, thorough and universal system of education. Under the liberal patronage of our Legislature, and guided by such a man as Mr. Barnard, this result can not fail to follow.

Provision was made at this meeting for visiting the Iostitutions, making application for a participatiov it the Normal Fund, and a resolution was also passed requesting all such Institations to notify the Secretary of this Board of their intentions prior to the 20th day of November nest. We hope to be able soon to announce the acceptance by Mr. Barnard of the important office to which he has been elected by this Boird. MADISON, October 11th. 1858.

J. T. CLARK, Secretary.

A SLANDER RÆFUTED.-A clergyman was charged with having violently dragged his wife from a revival meeting, and compelled her to go home with him. The clergyman let the story travel along until he had a fair opportunity to give it a broadside. Upon being charged with the offense be replied as follows:

“In the first place, I have never attempted to influence my wife in her views, nor a choice of a meeting. Secondly-my wife has never attended any of the revival meetings in Lowell. In the third place I have never attended any of the meetings for any purpose whatever. To con. clade-neitner my wife nor myself have any inclination to go to these meetings. Finally, I never had a wife.”

Superintendent's

Department.

OPINIONS, ETC., FROM THE OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT

(Continued from the October Number.) Q. Have the District Board a right to examine a teacher * A. A District Board has the right to make an examination by them a re-requisite for obtaining their schools; but they have no power to legal

examine teachers. If they insist on such an examination, a good teacher ill cheerfully comply. 12 Q. Can a teacher make a contract conditional apon his receiving a cerficate ?

A. No contract is binding upon a district made with an unqualified Leacher, as the law expressly declares that none but qualified teachers shall e employed. If, however, the district employ such a teacher, and he seEures a certificate before he begins school, the contract will be binding pon the district, if they allow him to go on with his duties.

Q. In a high school, acting under a special law, supposing the princial to be a qualified teacher, and supposing he hires his assistant teachers, he Board contracting to pay him so much for teaching the entire school,

it necessary that the assistants thus employed be qualified according to he usual manner? EN A. The law looks to who teaches the school, not to who pays them; so shat all teachers employed must be qualified, and there is no possible way of evading it. All assistants, then, however hired or paid, must be qualiied. * Q. If the Town Superintendent annuls the certificate of a teacher, is juis contract with the district binding?

A. It is not—the contract presupposing the teacher to have a certifiate. If he does not keep himself legally "qualified,” the district is not

held by its contract. 1

APPORTIONMENT, ETO. Q. If a district be divided before the apportionment is made, can the aew district, or the part attached to another district, share the money ap. wportioned to the old district ?

A. If any district be divided after the annual report and before the

apportionment is made, the new district, or the district receiving any por. tion of the old district, is entitled to its proper share of the school money, so that the apportionment shall be equal in all the districts.

Q. Is a district entitled to count antil September 10th, in order to make out ree months school ?

A. The law is, that districts, to be entitled to public money, must have bad a school for three months during the year ending at the date of the report, i.e., September 1st.

Q. If it can be proved that the report of the District Clerk was made in due season, and unaccountably lost before it reached the Town Superintendent, would not the district be entitled to public money?

A. It would not; as the apportionment is entirely based upon reports and as all the money is apportioned so that no mistakes can be rectified, If the Town Superintendent should apportion money to any such district, he would be liable on his bond.

Q. In making the apportionment, can the Town Superintendent alter the reports of District Clerks, if he knows them to be erroneous ?

A. He can not, as he is not supposed, in law, to know any thing about the districts except through the reports of the Clerks. The reports must be his guide, and if they are incorrect, the blame rests upon the Clerks; and if they are wilfully false, the law prescribes the penalty.

Q. If moneys are uncalled for, what shall the Town Superintendent do with them?

A. Keep them until the next apportionment, and add them to the whole amount to be apportioned.

Q. In case a town raises a special school tax (not the tax levied by the County Board) shall the Town Superintendent apportion it according to the number of scholars ?

A. The money received from the State, and the amount required by law to be raised by the towns in order to obtain this public money, is to be apportioned according to the number of scholars in each district; but

other taxes raised are to be apportioned according to the assessment of each district. Q. In case a district uses the public money for other purposes

than hiring qualified teachers, or uses some of it thus, will they forfeit their ap„portionment if they have paid their teachers from other funds ?

A. The law reads, “ No moneys shall be apportioned to any district or part of a district, unless it shall appear by the report thereof, * that all school moneys received during that year from the School Fund have been applied to the payment of the wages of such teacher.” The ob. .ect of the law is to guard the School Fund by devoting it to one especial

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