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as it would have a tendency to cultivate & spirit of forming and using libraries.

TEACHERS, QULIFICATIONS, ETO. Q. Can a Town Superintendent refuse a candidate a certificate if quali. fied !

A. The law requires certain qualifications which the Town Superintendent is to decide apon. Teachers must be qualified as respects “learning, moral character, and ability to teach.” If the Superintendent finds & candidate well qualified in all of these three points, he can not refuse & certificate. But there is no law requiring the Town Superintendent to be convinced of the qnalifications of a teacher, so as to force him to grant & certificate against his own judgment.

Q. Has the Town Superintendent a right to know where & candidate for a certificate intends to teach?

4. Certainly not. A certificate is of force in one town, and can not be made to be in force in a single district. A good rule for the Town Superintendent would be to insist that all teachers for his town shall be qualified to teach the best school in town.

Q: “Will you please enclose me a certificate," etc., etc.

A. The law gives the State Superintendent no power to grant certificates. No one but the Town Superintendent can grant a legal certificate

Q. What qualifications are necessary to entitle a person to a certificate ?

A. He should be at least competent to teach the branches required by law, viz:: Reading, Writing, Spelling, Grammar, Geography, and Arithmetio. He should also be a person of good and irreproachable moral character-one who is calculated to teach good morals by his influence. He should also be apt to teach. This, of course, can be well tested only by actual observation in the school.room. He should also be somewhat acquainted with the outlines, at least, of the natural and physical sciences, so as to be able to interest the pupils by means of “object lessons," and other oral instruction, not confining binself to the text-book.


(Concluded from the September Number.)

Shall it ever be deemed a sacrilege- desecration of the noble and holy purposes of educationblighting injury to the morals of our beloved

children, to permit the teachers in the public schools of Wisconsin to read a portion of the Sacred Scriptures, offer & prayer invoking the blessing of God apon their labors and the efforts of the children committed to their charge, or repeat the Lord's Prayer, all beautiful as it is, in its simplicity and adaptation to the wants of all; or impress upon their young and susceptible minds those incomparable teachings, derived from the Bible, touching their moral duties to their parents, to each other, to society, and to God? I confess I can not conceive how there could be any reasonable objection, any possible harm, in all this--antinctured with sectarianism as it would and should be; but, on the contrary, enduring good, in my opinion, would be the inevitable consequence.

There could be no more beautiful spectacle, none more truly ennobling, than a teacher inculcating and enforcing moral duties upon the young love to parents, brothers, sisters, companions-love to the race of man, and love to the Giver of all good; love of country, truth, honesty, and virtue -charity to the poor and unfortunate, and kindness to the brute creation; in a word, pressing upon their attention those foundation principles which alone can make them good children, good men, good women, and good citizens. And such instructions can be imparted by the judicious teacher at suitable opportunities, without ever for a moment trenching on sectarian pecaliarities.

Such is the abiding conviction, and such the practices of the civilized world. I am sure that the people of Wisconsin, who are generally conceded to possess as much virtue and intelligence as the citizens of any of their sister States, would never consent to utterly banish the Bible from their schools, and thus virtually repudiate its unequalled teachings

of virtue and morality as unfit for the instruction and guidance of the children of their. love-children who, at no distant day, mast become the rulers and lawgivers of the State, and the custodians of all that we now hold dear and sacred, our homes, our country, Christianity, and the Bible.

I would not force the attendance of scholars, against their parents' or gusrdians' will, on the exercises of reading the Scriptures and offering prayer. The conscientious scruples of men are always deserving of respect; and no School Board, or liberal community, would wish to be arbitrary or overbearing in matters of conscience. In all such differences of

opinion, there are necessarily two parties, and each have their rights, and 5

these should be equally respected, so far as it is possible to do so. Where there are any honest objections to such exercises—and the School Board should be the judge in such cases--then it might be advisable to have these exercises conducted a little before the regular hour for opening the school, as I learn has been the case in the Watertown schools, or if in school hours,


that such scholars might be permitted to retire; so that the children and wards of parents and guardians conscientiously objecting to their attendance on these exercises, might not be compelled to be present.

If a majority of the School Board prefer to have the common version of the Bible read in school, it is their right to claim their preference; if & majority prefer to have the Douay or Catholic edition read, it is their equal right to have it—but, in a matter of this kind, the Board, in fairness and justice, should faithfully represent the wishes of the district. But let the Bible be read, whatever be the version, reverently and impressively, and the blessing of the God of the Bible will never fail to attend it.

If the teacher sees proper, with the consent or approval of the School Board to make remarks to his school of a moral character and application, be should be extremely cautious and not travel out of his way to log in any thing that could, even by the most fastidious, be construed into & sectarian tendency. Such conduct would be bigoted, uncalled for and anjustifiable—a direct infringement of the Constitution, and a violation of all confidence reposed by the district in the judgment and propriety of the teacher; and would, in my opinion, be sufficient cause for his dismissal.

Thousands and tens of thousands of judicious teachers, in the Old World and the New, constantly impart moral instruction to their papils, without ever once obtruding, or desiring to obtrude, their views or opinions apon religious tenets or sectarian differences. I should have no fear of


sach narrow-minded obtrusion, and violation of good faith, in the teachers of Wisconsin; while on the one hand, to carry out the true spirit of moral instruction, on all suitable occasions, devoid of all sectarian tendencies, would, beyond all question, make the most enduring beneficial impressions. It would be folly, nay, worse than folly, to say that no moral instruction whatever should be given in our public schools. It is done every day, in every school in the land--for nearly every text-book, from the primary reader to the higher works on philosophy, geology, and intellectual science, convey, very properly, more or less moral instruction, and none think of branding them as sectarian.

Bat you may ask, may not a majority of the School Board, if they see fit, utterly refuse to tolerate the Bible, prayer, and moral instruction in the public school? We might obstinately and insanely refuse food for our perishing bodies, as well as for our craving, immortal minds, but we should only spite and injure ourselves by so rash and suicidal an act. I have no doubt the Board might legally thrust the Bible from the school house, and stifle the voice of prayer, for these are not among the studies specially prescribed by law; but they may very properly be regarded as among the "such other branches of education as may be determined upon by the

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theek Board,” as the law allows, if the Board think proper, to include them. 3 to the The district Board, too, under the advice of the Superintendent of Publio sent. Instruction, have power to determine the text-books to be used; and I

should ever feel bound to regard with special favor the use of the Bible in public schools, as pre-eminently first in importance among text-books for teaching the noblest principles virtue, morality, patriotism and good order-love and reverence for God-charity and good will to man. Very

respectfully, zict, &


Supt. of Public Instruction. End it -al of ande


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The shutters began to rattle, and the doors began to slam, and, as the spiriti mother raised her eyes from the book over which she was poring, dark

clouds of the rising tempest met her view. Her little son of seven years was sitting near the window, and had been silently and timidly watching

the gathering tempest—the lightning now dashed fiercely through the air, one eren and the muttering sounds of distant thunder had become the near report

of heavy artillery.

“Mother, let us pray !" said the little boy.
“ Will you pray, my son ?”
“Yes ma'am,” said the child.

And then by the couch knelt they both, while the young heart, consci

ous of its dependence upon God, sent forth its innocent offering, and imze fond plored protection for those he loved.

Oh! how beautiful it is to see children recognize the power of God every where! How necessary that they should study and respect His laws, in order to become good and honored citizens! How indispensable to happiness and prosperity is that influence which flows through a recognition of the relation existing between our heavenly Father, and his intelligent offspring. Father, mother, teacher, pray.

H. 8. Z.


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Lieutenant Hebersbam, in his letters from the East to the Philadelphia Ledger, thus recounts the circumstances upon which the celebrated ro mance of “Paul and Virginia” was founded, which may be new to some of our readers :

“Mademoisselle Caillon, aged eighteen, and very beautiful, was returning from France to Mauritius. M. Montendre was a passenger by the same vessel, and they naturally fell desperately in love. The vessel was wrecked very near Port Louis, and most of the passengers and crew were lost. The lovers were on the ship's forecastle, among others, with the sea breaking threateningly around them; others of the crew and passengers were aft on the quarter deck. Many were, it seems, trying to save themselves in one way and another, some of whom eventually succeeded. M. Montendre might have been among the latter, but he would not make the attempt unless Malle. Caillon would accompany him. This the lady shrank from, as it would necessitate the removal of her apparel. In pain the gentleman implored her to resort to it as the only means of escapeher resolution remained unshaken.

* Very well,” he ended, sadly, "I will die with you!” And the green waves washed mercilessly over them as with a winding sheet. They were never seen more. Such was the death of “Paul and Virginia.” When last seen he was standing erect, with his strong arms folded over a hopeless breast, and she, with depending hand resting upon his neck, and eyes of despairing love lifted to the averted ones of him who could no longer save her.

“There is something grand in this piece of self-devotion, something sublimely beautiful in the purity of this modesty, which shrank from indelicacy, but not from death.–Janesville Gazette and Free Press.

"We pay

A well-known political economist says:

best those who destroy 18-generals; second, those who cheat us-politicians and quacks; third, those who amuse us-singers and musicians; and least of all, those who instruct as authors, schoolmasters and editors."

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