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bantling may yet be “raised” and “heard from.” Under this impression the writer hereof ventures to record its doings and sayings for the Teacher.
Messrs. Rickoff and Smyth extended a welcome in behalf of Cincinnati and Ohio; whereupon Mr. President Richards acknowledged the courtesy, and then proceeded to pronounce his inaugural. In it the design of the Association was said to be to give a single aim to' all true instructors. It should take the place of a National Bureau of Education. That the Asso
ciation can take the place of Government in centring and energizing the 1.5" efforts of educators is to me questionable; that it should not is clear. The
great fact, which more than any other ought to be held before the people,
taught to infancy, made attractive to old age, spread and blazoned every pot where, is, that Government should educate the children of the governed.
Every child in this broad land has a right to knowledge, and the wealth
of the country has no “inalienable right” to exemption from tribute for er this purpose. If the Association shall direct its efforts to the establisho telement of a National Bureau of Education, instead of rendering its necessity ere less apparent by suggesting other means to take its place, good may come.
Secondly, there is now a National Journal of Education in the broadest and best sense of the term, of lofty aim, brilliant, vigorous, and scholarly, published at Hartford, Conn. Should the Association enlarge the number
of readers of this publication, though but a few thousands, it will have Vi justified its organization.
Prof. Read, of the University of Wisconsin, gave a resume of education for the last ten decades. The following catalogue of eminent teachers this
side of the Alleghany range I give in his own language: beciu
“I need not go beyond my own personal recollections, and, with some
of them, intimate personal and official relations, in naming such wen as inga Dr. Wilson, of the Ohio University, who declined the Presidency of South ds de Carolina College to plant himself at Chillicothe, then an insignificant point CL
in a wilderness country; as Dr. Wylie, of Washington, Pennsylvania, afterward of Indiana, whose whole life was that of a teacher, and whose pupils, in every part of the country, adorn the highest positions of influence; as Dr. Lindsley, of Nashville, who gave up the offer of the Presidency of Princeton College, where he was ai the time Vice-President and Professor, for the more toilsome but broader sphere of influence here in ihe West; as Prof. Dana, the author of that admirable series of Latin books—the Liber Primus, Latin Tutor, etc., which, East and West, were the books o the day, and who, for twenty years, imparted his own severe and elegant taste in the classics to the youth of Ohio; as Francis Glass, who, in a log school-house, in Warren County, this State, without books of reference, and in the midst of the daily toils of his school, wrote his Life of Washington in Latin; as Professor Mathews, who, at Lexington and in this city, cultivated and taught the highest French and analytical mathematics at a period when (except at West Point) they were hardly elsewhere taught in the whole country, and when he was obliged, for the want of translated
text-books, to make his own translations as he proceeded; as Dr. Bishop, a name which awakens love and reverence in the bosoms of hundreds of pupils; as Marshall, of Kentucky, a brother of the Chief Justice, and scarcely inferior to his illustrious kinsman in talent and worth-a man who spent a life of usefulness and honor as a faithful and devoted teacher; as Kempel of Cincinnati; Slocomb, of Marietta; or, if I may name teachers in the professions, who, as Professors and Lecturers, in any part of the country, would stand before Dr. Caldwell, Dr. Dudley, and Dr. Drakemen whose reputation is known wherever medical science is cultivated. Other well-known names I might add to this list, if time would permit. Of the eminent instructors—those who were then active in forming the youthful mind of the country, and laying deep and broad the foundations of our institutions-alas! how few remain in the present time. It is with a feeling of melancholy that, in looking over all the tract of country this side of the mountain-range of which I have spoken, and tracing it from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico, not a single college officer in commission when I became such, now remains. Dr. M'Guffey, of the Virginia University, and Dr. Scott, of Oxford, became connected with the Miami a little subsequent to my own connection with the Ohio University, and still continue active and honored members of our professional corps."
Omitting the dark side of the picture--for the Professor by no means acknowledged that all changes were improvements—I will only say, the Normal School, the Educational Journal, the Teachers' Institute (an American institution), and the better text-book and school-house, were mention. ed as indications of real progress.
Prof. Young, of Indiana, read a paper on the Laws of Nature. This was a clear and able production, but much too long. When will men cease to "think that they shall be heard for their much speaking ?” I might as well say here, that all the set addresses were too long.
“Brevity is the soul of wit.”—Shakspeare.
The tone and aim of Mr. Philbrick's paper may be gathered from the following, which is substantially his own language:
“I am one of those who believe in the liberal education of the whole human being. Thus, and only thus, can we be symmetrically formed according to the design of the Author of our being. I believe we can take something from the Persians, who taught their boys to speak the truth and ride on horseback; from the Spartans, who taught their sons to be skillful in bodily exercises and contempt of danger; something from the Athenians, who inculcated a taste for the beautiful in art; something from the ancient Hebrews, who taught the grandeur and beauty of wisdom; and something from every source that is calculated to ameliorate and improve the human race. We need such education individually, socially, politically. It is needed to train those who are covered by the judicial ermine. It is needed in every department of human life.
“ But what I would urge is, to attain to something higher than the cultivation of the intellectual faculties. To wisdom we must add virtue. The dominion of virtue is the dominion of Christianity. If we seek moral vir
tue, happiness will follow. In the language of inspiration, “Seek first the ele kingdom of God, and all these things will be added.” The spirit of Chris1 tianity is the leading idea in any true system of education. True morality punt must be based upon religion. That morality which is simply founded
upon the maxim, 'Honesty is the best policy,' without a consideration of med its correlative ideas, is vicious. It culminated in France under the instrucks tions of Rousseau. It has relation to the temporal interests of man, but not to his education, according to the virtue of Christianity."
Mr. Mann's paper on the Motives of the Teacher is thus commented on ki in one of the dailies :
“He assumed that all labor is right or wrong, according to the motive & which begets it, and the perseverance with which men pursue an object
depends upon the motive which inspires it. The scale of motive is infinite, reaching up through nature to nature's God, or sinking to the nadir of meanness. It determines every thing, gives fertility to life or smites it with barrenness. In considering the motives by which a teacher should be governed, he commenced by the lowest, which he said was compensation. His principle was that the laborer is worthy of his hire, and favored a liberal pecuniary compensation to teachers, but, at the same time, maintained it to be the duty of every teacher, after having made his contract, to discharge his entire duties independent of money consideration. Other motives by which teachers should be governed, are those common to humanity, of securing public approval, and a desire to elevate their calling.
“He took occasion to disclaim transcendental notions; but in sketching the character of a true and competent teacher of youth, he soared into farreaching sublimities, so far distant from any experience of man in any age, that we began to regard the class undergoing such an elevating process as being entirely of a different order of human kind, possessing many of the perfectibilities of a higher nature than ordinary man can hope to aspire to, unless the Divine Wisdom should see proper, in the abundance of His benevolenee, to transport us from this world of woe into regions of perfect bliss. In short, his idea of a true and competent teacher was an immacnlate conception. Nevertheless, his sketch of the character was absorbingly entertaining, and was painted in an eloquent style of composition. On the other hand, his portraiture of the pedagogue was pungent in the extreme, and was a capital specimen of caricaturesque word-painting.”
This notice hardly does Mr, Mann justice ; for although he reveled in the ideal, yet there was an earnest spirit in him, and it got out of him into his hearers, who felt a little practical. Teachers left the hall that night with higher aims and hopes.
A discussion on Parochial Schools operated as a safety-valve, allowing the escape of smothered eloquence, thereby preventing sundry explosions,
but otherwise was of little value. It was amusing to observe the eagerness of the combatants to get the floor and define their position. We presume all were delighted with this rencontre and ite result, even down to the little Queen-City “Taurus." It consumed the best half-day of the session, however, and was but an ordinary discussion of a comparatively unimportant subject, which one would not suppose it necessary to go to a National Teachers' Association to hear.
The most valuable, and to many the most interesting exercise of the session was the “Call of the States.” I will mention one fact in illustration. Mr. Philbrick, in response to the call for the Old Bay State, said, among other things, that the annual salary of the Masters of the High Schools in Boston was $2,800 each ; Sub-Masters, $2,000 each ; Ushers, $1,600 each; Masters of the Common Schools, $2,000 each; Sub-Masters, 1,600 each; Ushers, $1,000 each; Female teachers in all schools $450 each; Head Assistant female teachers, $500 each. Now this matter of compensation, though, according to Mr. Mann, the lowest motive which should influence a teacher, is, nevertheless, a sure guide to a correct estimate of popular appreciation. It is generally safe to say that that people which expends most freely for schools has the keenest sense of their value. Among them, also, is found the highest culture and most faultless system of training. If we could, therefore, get the highest, lowest, and average compensation of teachers in each State, together with the specific salary paid in the various grades of schools in the cities, from year to year, at the National Teachers' Association, it would itself pay for attending its meetings. In addition to this, if some man for each State would take off the cover and show the inside workings of their system-show what enterprises had been undertaken, with what success, and how they were engineered; in short show the unwritten and private history of institutions and systems, then would the annual gatherings of this Association become a grand centre of interest. Of course, the discussion of living questions, the making of acquaintances, and the maturing of plans for uniform action, should not be overlooked. This leads me to notice an excellent move of Hon. Ira Divoll to secure a uniform plan for statistical reports, to the end that the schools of one city or State may be easily and accurately compared with those of any other. Messrs. Divoll, of St. Louis, Philbrick, of Boston, and Hovey, of Illinois, have this matter in charge. The usual number of complimentary and indifferent resolutions were offered and passed. Mr. Rickoff, of Cincinnati, was elected President; Bulkley, of Brooklyn, Secretary; and Pennell, of St. Louis, Treasurer, for the ensuing year. I noticed among the members from Illinois, Isaac Stone, jr., Ottawa; J. P. Slade, Belleville ; A. Griffin, Collinsville; O. H. Case, Warsaw; G. F. W. Wiley. Quincy; and C. E. Hovey, of Bloomington.
Very few Eastern teachers were present; but, to make up for lack of numbers, conspicuous positions were assigned them. The President is indebted to the Vice-President from New York for always having a man on
the stage at his elbow, ready to put a question to vote in an emergency. The distinguished gentleman from Boston was winked at and motioned to
the platform whenever he entered the ball, while the venerable President te of Antioch College was allowed quietly and annoticed to enter and be *** seated in the “pews," and the Superintendent of Schools in St. Louis, with (H others uninitiated, was scarcely able to obtain membership before the close 7 of the last half-day of the session. The arrangements for the aclmission of
new members seem to have been made without much reference to conven. 13 ience or dispatch.
The Association meets next year in Washington, D. O., the second Wedpo nesday of August.-Illinois Teacher.
S. D. Y.
OPINIONS, ETC., FROM THE OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT.
Q. Is & district obliged to expend library money for books; or can en they use their discretion in the matter?
A. The discretion is vested in the Town Superintendent. If he sees be fit to set apart a certain portion of the apportionment for library purposes,
it is obligatory upon the district to expend it according to law, or else lose their next apportionment. It is to be hoped that some provision for establishing uniform libraries in every district in the State will be made the coming winter, so that the matter shall not be discretionary either with District Boards or Superintendents.
Q. In case no librarian is elected, can the District Board elect one ?
The law expressly provides that the District Clerk shall be librarian in case there is no one elected. If the district neglects to elect, the Board have no power to appoint.
Q. How much library money can the Town Superintendent set apart for library purposes ?
A. Ten per cent. is the maximum. He may set apart loss, in his discretion, but he can not set apart more. It would, however, be advisable to make the matter uniform, and regularly set apart ten per cent. every year,