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must belong equally to a complete school system, and 2ndly, because I believe that the distinction itself has little ground in the nature of things. What is mental discipline but the exercise, and the development through exercise, of some one or more of the mental faculties? What is study but the attentive and zealous application of the mind in some of its faculties to the acquisition of some branch of human knowl. edge ? All studies therefore are of necessity disciplinary, just so far as they are studies. He who investigates and masters the principles of science and the processes of the agricultural art by which two blades of grass may be made to grow, where only one has grown before, just as truly and as necessarily disciplines his mind in so doing, as he who translates an ode of Anaoreon or an idyl of Theocritus. He who studies the human body in the anatomy of all its complex structures, and the marvelous laws of its life, until he has entered fully into the divine thought therein contained, and has comprehended, so far as science enables us to comprehend, the mystery and the marvel of our being, gains in that process an invaluable mental training, as inevitably as he who studies the anatomy of a sentence, or who seeks to penetrate the laws of mind. Doubtless certain faculties are more employed, and therefore better disciplined, in certain studies than in others. It is, indeed, a part of the science of education to determine the relation of different branches of knowledge to the specific culture of particular mental powers, as it is a branch of the practical educator's art to employ those methods of instruction in any given branch by which it may be made to minister in the highest degree to the unfolding of the various intellectual faculties. But however this may be, the distinction between disciplinary and non-disciplinary studies ought, in my judgment, to be abandoned, and with it all narrow notions concerning the proper functions of the school, and the legitimate range of intellectual pursuits belonging to a perfect school system.
Having thus defined the position of the State as the only possible author of a complete school system; and having endeavored, in general terms, to point out the wide range of arts and sciences which must be embraced in such a system, we are met by a third question of eminent practical importance: Through what series and gradations of schools should these subjects be distributed for the most convenient, full and thorough culture of the whole people? But gentlemen, I have already detained you too long, and must dismiss this part of my theme with a few very brief suggestions. The great want of our State in education seems to be this—that the principles of gradation in schools which have been successfully applied in our populous cities, should be in like manner applied, to the utmost practicable extent, throughout the State ; that in all our counties we should have our primary, intermediate and high schools ; that the State should devise a system, under which each of these shall be supplied with its appropriate funds, and placed under adequate and active supervision ; that larger districts should be furnished with such normal schools and such academies or colleges as they may need, under the patronage, and control, and stringent supervision of the State, and harmonizing throughout with other portions of its system ; that special schools should be established for instruction in the fine arts, and in the industrial arts, just as rapidly as a demand for them developes itself, or just as soon as it appears that their establishment would itself develope such a demand; and that at the head of all, the State University should open wide the doors of its various schools for the men and women of the State, there to acquire a more advanced knowledge of all sciences and all liberal arts than can be appropriately furnished in the other schools of the system.
Ladies and Gentlemen of the Association : If the ideas of a complete Educational
System which I have now so imperfectly sketched are true and just, yet they cannot PX be realized in a single year. You and I may not live to see them embodied into living 25 facts in this noble State of our adoption. The generation to which we belong may
pass away before the fullness of the idea is translated into actual laws and institutions. 2. Meanwhile it is the proper duty of the true man not only to labor in faith for the real25 ization of every noble idea in laws and institutions which may remain to bless a En future age, but to stand in his appointed lot, and work while it is called to day, with biz such imperfect instruments as are furnished by the systems actually existing around i him. To you it belongs, by your combined efforts, not only to develope in Wisconsin bith a system of greater symmetry and completeness, but to put into these dead forms of
system a devout, intelligent, and earnest soul, a quick and glowing life. From the da discussions of this annual gathering, we must all go forth again to the burdens and let the battles of life. May we go with a fuller appreciation of the real wants of our to pee people, with a profounder sense of personal responsibility, with a more extended there acquaintance and a wider charity for our fellow laborers in this vineyard of the Lord, f this and with a more earnest consecration of ourselves to the great cause of human ime to be provement in whatever professional or industrial station, in whatever position, humslelis ble or conspicuous, in hu.nan society, may be assigned us severally by the Divine it by Taskmaster of us all.
I Am of that class of individuals who have the great care and responsibility resting upon them of teaching and governing a school of seventy scholars, in a miserably low, ill-contrived 20 by 24 room, without shadetrees or window blinds to keep back the burning san, which pours its scorching rays full in the faces of its suffocating victims. Nothing but the same old newspaper curtains which were used when our fathers and
mothers were school-boys and girls, are permitted to adorn the place 11 Wed where, day after day, the children of rich and poor are compelled to spend
the greater part of their time. Nothing to render it attractive but the
broken desks, the rusty stove, the dingy walls, half stripped of the coat ingen given them by the mason, the leaky roof, and the smiles which now and
then light up the teacher's visage, although, I assure you, this requires a
of “Progress" is rife in our land. “Welcome! thrice welcome!" the glorious day when friends and patrons shall have progressed so far in the scale of civilization as to see the need of visiting their schools. Go and sit thirty minutes upon the back-breaking benches, where
children are required to sit hours; and breathe the air which they must in
hale in such an ill-ventilated room; see your children moping into school half an hour after their class has recited, and when requested to study their lessons for the coming recitation, hear the common excusegot any book.” Mothers! ray at least one-half the attention to the wel. fare of your children that you do to the geese and turkeys in your poultry yard, the linen in your chests, or the silks in your presses. Fathers! te as anxious to see your children doing well as you are to see the pigs in their pen, and the cattle in your fields, in a thriving condition. Parents, guardians, all! care as much for the clothing of the minds of your children as you do for that of their bodies. Now there is not a well-to-do farmer in the land who would trust the management of his cattle to the supervision of any man. Why, then, I ask, should he trust the training of his children, year after year, to those with whose character he is wholly unacquainted ? for surely they are of more value than many cattle! We repeat our request, that you“ Visit Your Schools.”
THE TEACHER'S REWARD.
Is a teacher ever really remunerated for services rendered? Can dollars and cents balance brain, and heart, and life? Each dollar bears upon its surface a drop of the dearest life-blood that courses through a true teacher's heart.
With aching head and troubled brow, lighted by the golden gleamings of tne setting sun, the teacher seeks his home, but seldom to rest in quiet
i for care with muffled tread has followed upon his footsteps, sitting beside him at his meals, and near his couch. In his dreams the toilings of the day are all enacted “o'er and o'er.” Petty vexations are magnifiedthe mole-hills of the sunshine have become mountains in the darkness, and morning finds him wearied, enervated, and wanting in that cheerful, hoping spirit that fringes the darkest cloud with the holy sunlight of God's love.
Would he for gold barter the buoyancy of health-the elasticity of & loving, hoping spirit-freedom from the “ care that killeth ?”
But the teacher's life is not always thus—, desert waste. There are sunny spots where birds carol amid green branches, where waters sparkle along shining sands, where flowers bloom, and cloudless skies bend o'er
The good desire implanted and taking vigorous root-the generous deed -the ready hand—the willing heart—the unsullied innocence of the childish mind—the glorious workings of intellect-the growth of noble principles—the morning offering with sunny smiles-the good-night kiss—the
heartfelt, kindly wish—the evil overcome with good—the holy aspirations for the greatest good of all; all these that make life beautiful and blessed, are not to be forgotten in summing up the teacher's balance-sheet of pleasure and pain.
Our reward is not upon the earth. It can not be meted out to us in gold, nor jewels, nor precious stones. Eternity, that time unmeasured, shall be the space allotted for us to enjoy the ample remuneration for services rendered here in the great work-house of time. We shall then become meek scholars in that school “Where Christ himself doth rule," learning heavenly wisdom from the lips of the Great Teacher through uncounted ages. Is not that more blessed than aught in time?
MR. EDITOR:-In an article in a late Number of the Journal, entitled “ Aspects of Education,” I notice among much excellent advice, with regard to the employing of female teachers; some remarks which, I think, must be condemned by all lovers of justice and equal rights. For instance, the writer attempts to justify the custom of paying less wages to female than male teachers; because, as he avers, the “Former can afford to work for less wages than the latter," and goes on to say, “Society imposes upon man certain pecuniary obligations from which woman is free.” “If & gentleman desires the company of a lady at a ride, a lecture, a concert, or other entertainments, he must pay the expense of both.” And again: " The female having no choice (of occupation), is but too glad to accept for teaching what her male competitor refused."
Now, as I am a practical woman, I wish to show that the theory (if I may so term it) of this writer, does not agree with the facts of every-day life. To illustrate: Tom Brown, who by the way, is an acquaintance and friend of mine, and I are employed as teachers in districts contignous to each other. My education, we will say, is equal to his, and my experience about
But I am to receive only $16 per month while he is paid $30. As my school is as large as his, and I am expected to do an equal amount of work, I naturally inquire the reason for this difference in our wages, and am informed that "Society imposes certain pecuniary obligations upon man from which woman is free,” that if "he desires any company at a ride, lecture, or concert, he must pay the expenses of both,” etc., etc. I am satisfied, because having a turn for figures, I understand that I am entitled to $16 per month in cash, and $14 in amusement of various kinds,
making in all $30. Quite a desirable little som!" I exclaim, and go to work with right good will, “ Teaching the young idea, etc."
But imagine my indignation when in looking over my books in the spring (I always keep strict accounts), I find myself most shamefully wronged. Urder date of January first, I read,
“Received of Tom Brown sixty-two cents, being the amount paid by him for my expenses at the New Year's Ball."
And again :
“Received, February 4th, twenty-five cents, being the admission fee to Dr. Pufferall's lecture."
These receipts amounting to just eighty-seven cents in all, I have to show for the $14 I expected to receive during the winter in polite atten. tions! But perhaps it will be argued that if said Brown should marry me, it will be all the same, as he will then “endow me with all his worldly goods.” Ah! but if he should not, but should take a fancy to marry Jane Smith (who, by the way, has a rich father, and isn't obliged to teach for a living), who is to pay my expenses in future at rides, lectures, or concerts ?
Now what I have to ask is this, viz.: Grant the laws be so amended that whatever Brown receives above what he really earns in payment for gallant attentions to me, he shall be compelled to give a strict account of, and, in no case, be allowed to appropriate the sum, which I indirectly earned, to his own private use. Yours,
C. L. MORGAN.
P.S.-An odd idea has sometimes entered my mind, viz.: whether it would not be as much to our advantage to pay our own amusement bills (if I may so term them), provided that by so doing we could become entitled to receive the same wages as the sterner sex. But I suppose as long
but too glad” to accept what men will not, things will go on about the same as ever. So, after all, it may be the remedy does not lie in an amendment of the laws.
O. L. M.
as women are
NATIONAL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION.
CINCINNATI, Auyust 12th, 1858. The first anniversary of the birth of this somewhat pretentious yourgster is drawing to a close, and perhaps I ought to say, in passing, for the information of the public, that it has spent its babyhood in growing, and now exhibits, at the end of a twelve month, occasional scintillations of intelligence. In fact, it is essaying to talk;, and though some of its utterances are idle, others seem to have an aim, With judicious nursing the