« НазадПродовжити »
THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS
Are digested into the FORM of Diftinet
The HISTORY, THEORY, and PRAGTIGE, of each,
AND FULL EXPLANATIONS GIVEN OF THE
MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of LIFE:
WHETHER RELATING TO
A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, doc.
throughout the WORLD;.
A N D
An Account of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,
from the earlieft ages down to the present times.
Compiled from the writings of the best Autbors, in several languages; the most approved Dizionaries, as well of general science as of its partin
Eminent Profesors on different sciences; and a variety of Original Materials, furnished by an Exionfave Correspondences
THE THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, -GREATLY IMPROVED.
ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.
INDOCTI DISCANT, ET AMENT MEMINISSB PERITI.
L E S
L ET L'Etrange . Lerlard Feated the hoteyn of mile olbrzine ,
England, seated sea-shore, 117 miles north- 6 that his productions are not fit to be read by any. Lethargy.
L'ESTRANGE (Sir Roger), a noted writer in up with fand coming from the tin-mines, and therefore
. The market is on Tuesday; and it has two
the Tories began to gain the fairs. It is supposed to have been a Roman town: for
LETHE, in the ancient mythology, one of the vented them, and among what people they were first Letter. rivers of hell, fignifying oblivion or forgetfulness; its in use, there is still room to doubt : Philo attributes waters having, according to poetic fiction, the peculiar this great and noble invention to Abraham ; Jofephus, quality of making those who drank them forget every St Irenæus, and others, to Enoch ; Bibliander, to A. thing that was past.
dam ; Eufebius, Clemens Alexandrinus, Cornelius LETI (Gregorio), an eminent Italian writer, was Agrippa, and others, to Moses; Pomponius Mela, descended of a family which once made a considerable Herodian, Rufus Feftus, Pliny, Lucan, &c, to the figure at Bologna : Jerom, his father, was page to Phænicians ; St Cyprian, to Saturn ; Tacitus, to the prince Charles de Medicis; served fome time in the Egyptians ; some, to the Ehtiopians ; and others, to troops of the grand duke as captain of foot; and the Chinese : but, with respect to these laft, they can settling at Milan, married there in 1628. He was af. never be intitled to this honour, fince all their characterward governor of Almantea in Calabria, and died ters are the signs of words, formed without the use of at Salerno in 1639. Our author was born at Milan letters ; which renders it impossible to read and write in 1630, Atudied under the Jesuits at Cosenza, and their language without a vast expence of time and was afterward sent by an uncle to Rome, who would trouble ; and absolutely impossible to print it by the have him enter into the church ; but he being averse help of types, or any other manner but by engraving, to it, went into Geneva, where he studied the govern- or cutting in wood. See PRINTING, ment and the religion there. Thence he went to Lau- There have been also various conjectures about the sanne; and contracting an acquaintance with John different kinds of letters used in different languages : Anthony Guerin, an eminent physician, lodged at his thus, according to Crinitus, Moses invented the Hehouse, made profession of the Calvinist religion, and brew letters; Abraham, the Syriac and Chaldee; the married his daughter. He settled at Geneva ; where Phænicians, those of Attica, brought into Greece by he spent almost twenty years, carrying on a correspon- Cadmus, and from thence into Italy by the Pelasdence with learned men, especially those of Italy. Some gians ; Nicoftrata, the Roman ; Ilis, the Egyptian ; contests obliged him to leave that city in 1679; upon and Vulfilas, those of the Goths. which he went to France, and then into England, where It is probable, that the Egyptian hieroglyphics he was received with great civility by Charles II. who, were the first'manner of writing : but whether Cadmus. after his first audience, made him a present of a thou- and the Phænicians learned the use of letters from the fand crowns, with a promise of the place of historio. Egyptians, or from their neighbours of Judea or Sagrapher., He wrote there the Hiftory of England; maria, is a question ; for fince some of the books of but that work not pleasing the court on account of his the Old Testament were then written, they are more too great liberty in writing, he was ordered to leave likely to have given them the hint, than the hieroglythe kingdom. He went to Amsterdam in 1682, and phics of Egypt. But wherefoever the Phænicians was honoured with the place of historiographer to that learned this art, it is generally agreed, that Cadmus city. He died suddenly in 1701. He was a man of the son of Agenor first brought letters into Greece ; indefatigable application, as the multiplicity of his whence, in following ages, they spread over the rest works show. The principal of these are, 1. The uni- of Europe. See Alphabet and WRITING. versal monarchy of Louis XIV. 2. The life of Pope
Letters make the first part or elements of grammar ; Sixtus V. 3. The life of Philip II. king of Spain. an assemblage of these compose syllables and words, 4. The life of the emperor Charles V. 5. The life and these compose sentences. The alphabet of every of Elizabeth, queen of England. 6. The history of language consists of a number of letters, which ought Oliver Cromwell. 7. The history of Great Britain, each to have a different found, figure, and use. As 5 vols 12mo. 8. The history of Geneva, &c..
the difference of articulate founds was intended to exLETRIM, a county of Ireland, in the province of press the different ideas of the mind, so one letter was Connaught, 44 miles in length and 17 in breadth; originally intended to fignify only one found, and not, bounded on the east and north-east by Cavan and Fer- as at present, to express sometimes one sound and managh, by Sligo and Roscommon on the west and sometimes another; which practice has brought a great south-west, and by Longford on the east and south-east. deal of confusion into the languages, and rendered the It is a hilly country, with rank grass, which feeds a learning of the modern tongues much more difficult great number of cattle. The chief town is Letrim, than it would otherwise have been. This consideraleated not far from 'the river Shannon. It contains tion, together with the deficiency of all the known al4000 houses, 21 parishes, 5 baronies, 2 boroughs, and phabets, from their wanting some letters to express fends 6 members to parliament.
certain sounds, has accafioned several attempts towards LETTER, a character used to express one of the an uniyerfal alphabet, to contain an enumeration of fimple sounds of the voice ; and, as the different simple all such single sounds or letters as are ufed in any lansounds are expressed by different letters, these, by be- guage. See ALPHABET. ing differently compounded, become the visible signs Grammarians distinguish letters into vowels, confoor characters of all the modulations and mixtures of nants, mutes, liquids, diphthongs, and characterifounds used to express our ideas in a regular language ; ftics. They are likewise divided into capital and small (See LANGUAGE). Thus, as by the help of speech we letters. They are also denominated from the shape. render our ideas audible ; by the aflftance of letters we and turn of the letters; and in writing are distinguishtender them visible, and by their help we can wrap up ed into different hands, as round-text, German-text, our thoughts, and send them to the most diftant parts round-hand, Italian, &c. and in printing, into Roman, of the earth, and read the transactions of different ages. Italic, and black letter. As to the firft letters, what they were, who first in- The term LETTER, or Type, among printers, got on
Letter. ly includes the CAPITALS, SMALL CAPITALS, and Accordingly Cicero says : “ In writing letters, we
small letters, but all the points, figures, and other make use of common words and expresiions." And
LETTER is also a writing addressed and sent to a the manner of expression. If the fubject be something
weighty and momentous, the language should be The art of epistolary writing, as the late transator strong and folemn; in things of a lower nature, more of Pliny's Letters has observed, was esteemed by the free and easy; and upon lighter matters, jocose and Romans in the number of liberal and polite accom- pleasant. In exhortations, it ought to be lively and plishments; and we find Cicero mentioning with great vigorous; in confolations, kind and compassionate; and pleasure, in some of his letters to Atticus, the elegant in advising, grave and serious. In narratives, it should fpecimen he had received from his son of his genius be clear and distinct ; in requests, modeft; in commenin this way. It seems indeed to have formed part of dations, friendly; in prosperity cheerful, and mournful their education ; and, in the opinion of Mr Locke, in adversity. In a word, the style ought to be acit well deserves to have a share in ours. “ The wri- commodated to the particular nature of the thing about * ting of letters (as that judicious author observes) which it is conversant.
enters so much into all the occasions of life, that no 1 Besides, the different character of the person, to * gentleman can avoid Thewing himself in compofi- whom the letter is written, requires a like difference " tions of this kind. Occurrences will daily force him in the modes of expression. We do not use the same " to make this use of his pen, which lays open his language to private persons, and those in a public fta“ breeding, his sense, and his abilities, to a feverer tion; to superiors, inferiors, and equals. Nor do we “ examination than any oral discourse." It is to be express ourselves alike to old men and young, to the wondered we have so few. writers in our own language grave and facetious, to courtiers, and philosophers, who deserve to be pointed out as models upon such an to our friends and ftrangers. Superiors are to be adoccasion. After having named Sir William Temple, it dressed to with respect, inferiors with courtesy, and would perhaps be difficult to add a fecond. The elegant equals with civility; and every one's character, ftawriter of Cowley's life mentions him as excelling in tion, and circumstances in life, with the relation we this uncommon talent; but as that author declares stand in to him, occafions some variety in this respect. himself of opinion, “ That letters which pass between But when friends and acquaintances correspond by familiar friends, if they are written as they should be, letters, it carries them into all the freedom and good. can scarce ever be fit to see the light,” the world is humour of conversation ; and the nearer it resembles deprived of what no doubt would have been well worth that, the better, fince it is designed to supply the room its inspection. A late diftinguished genius treats the of it. For when friends cannot enjoy each others very attempt as ridiculous, and professes himself “ a company, the next satisfaction is to converse with mortal enemy to what they call a fine letter." His each other by letters. Indeed, sometimes greater averfion however was not so strong, but he knew to freedom is used in epifles, than the same persons conquer it when he thought proper; and the letter would have taken in discoursing together ; because, which closes his correspondence with bishop Atterbury as Cicero says, “ A letter does not blush." is, perhaps, the most genteel and manly address that nothing ought to be said in a letter, which, considered ever was penned to a friend in disgrace. The truth in itself, would not have been fit to say in discourse ; is, a fine letter does not confit in faying fine things, though modesty perhaps, or some other particular but in expressing ordinary ones in an uncommon man- reason, might have prevented it. And thus it fre
It is the proprie communia dicere, the art of giving quently happens in requests, reproofs, and other cirgrace and elegance to familiar occurrences, that con- cumstances of life. A man can alk that by writing, ititutes the merit of this kind of writing. Mr Gay’s which he could not do by words, if present; or blame letter, concerning the two lovers who were ftruck what he thinks amiss in his friend with greater liberty dead with the same flash of lightning, is a mafter-piece when absent, than if they were together. From hence of the fort ; and the specimen he has there given of it is easy to judge of the fitness of any expression to his talents for this species of composition makes it stand in an epiftle, only by considering, whether the much to be regretted we have not more from the same fame
way of speaking would be proper in talking with hand.
the same person. Indeed, this difference may be alWard's
of the Style of Epiftolary Composition. Purity in the lowed, that as persons have more time to think, when Oratory,
choice of words, and justness of construction, joined they write, than when they speak; a greater accu-