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THE following Meets contain the substance of 1 a course of lectures on the laws of England, which were read by the author in the university of OXFORD. His original plan took its rise in the year 1753: and, notwithstanding the novelty of such an attempt in this age and country, and the prejudices usually conceived against any innovations in the established mode of education, he had the satisfačtion to find (and he acknowleges it with a mixture of pride and gratitude) that bis endeavours were encouraged and patronized by those, both in the university and out of it, whose good opinion and esteem he was principally desirous to obtain.

The death of Mr Viner in 1756, and bis ample benefačtion to the university for promoting the study of the law, produced about two years afterwards a regular and public establishment of what the author had privately undertaken. The knowlege of our laws and constitution was adopted as a liberal science by general academical autho

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rity; competent endowments were decreed for the support of a lecturer, and the perpetual encouragement of students; and the compiler of the ensuing commentaries had the honour to be elected the first Vinerian profesor.

In this situation he was led, both by duty and inclination, to investigate the elements of the law, and the grounds of our civil polity, with greater assiduity and attention than many have thought it necessary to do. And yet all, who of late years have attended the public administration of justice, must be sensible that a masterly acquaintance with the general spirit of laws and the principles of universal jurisprudence, combined with an accurate knowlege of our own municipal constitutions, their original, reason, and history, bath given a beauty and energy to many modern judicial decisions, with which our ancestors were wholly unacquainted. If, in the pursuit of these inquiries, the author hath been able to rectify any errors which either himself or others may have heretofore imbibed, his pains will be sufficiently answered : and, if in fome points be is still mistaken, the candid and judicious reader will make due allowances for the difficulties of a search so new, fo extensive, and so laborious,

2 Nov. 1765.


NOTWITHSTANDING the diffidence expressed in the foregoing Preface, no sooner was the work completed, but many of its positions were vehemently attacked by zealots of all (even oppofite ) denominations, religious as well as civil ; by fome with a greater, by others with a lefs degree of acrimony. To fuch of these animadverters as have fallen within the author's notice (for be doubts not but some have escaped it) be owes at least this obligation ; that they have occasioned him from time to time to revise bis work, in respect to the particulars objected to; to retract or expunge from it what appeared to be really erroneous ; to amend or supply it when inaccurate or defective; to illustrate and explain it when obscure. But, where he thought the obječtions ill-founded, he hath left and shall leave the book to defend itself : being i fully of opinion, that if his principles be false and bis doctrines unwarrantable, no apology from himself can make them right; if founded in truth and rectitude, no censure from others can make them wrong.

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