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large cavalry reserves move generally in double column, or in line of squadron columns at close interval ; in the latter formation, the regiments may be either massed in one line or one regiment behind the other ; in the former, they may be massed in double column of regiments or divisions.

If each regiment is required to execute a different formation, the brigadier must either prefix to his order the word '—th regiment' or send to the regiments distinct and individual orders ; each regimental commander then carries out the movements ordered independently, e.g. supposing the brigade to be in double column and the 2nd regiment is required to form line of squadron columns at deploying interval, the ist to form an offensive flank, the brigadier will give the order, “2nd regiment-Line of squadron columns at deploying interval to the front,''Ist regiment–Offensive flank.'

In the same manner if the several regiments or brigades are required to advance in succession in échelon, each échelon to consist of one regiment or brigade, with intervals determined by the commander, the brigadier's order is 'Échelon (Staffeln) on the

—th regiment'; the regiment named advances in its actual formation, the other follows on the flank and rear of the leading regiment, at the interval ordered.

The flank divisions or squadrons may also be ordered, during the advance to the attack, to form échelon on the flank and rear ; the order would be given, '—th squadron (-th division) of —th regi

ment-Échelon in rear of right (left) flank': the interval at which the squadron or division would follow in échelon in rear of the flank named would depend on the actual situation.

DUTIES OF REGIMENTAL COMMANDERS.

Regimental commanders must place themselves where they can best hear or take the orders of the brigadier, and best give their own orders to their commands.

When the brigadier is obliged to ride off to a considerable distance from the main body of the brigade, as, for example, when making a reconnaissance in person, or riding forward to the zone of the scouring parties, the senior regimental commander in the brigade takes command of the main body, the senior field officer assuming the latter's place in command of the regiment.

RESERVES.

The necessity of detaching a reserve has already been pointed out in speaking of small bodies of cavalry.

In an independent brigade, either an entire regiment or the greater portion of a regiment must form the reserve, only the number of men absolutely necessary being detached for outpost duty; in a cavalry Division or corps, an entire brigade will follow in reserve.

The commander must take care to place the reserve where it will either best suit his own intentions or will most effectually neutralise the intentions of the enemy. The distance of the reserve from the main body must be such that it may not be swept away in the occurrences of the main body, while still being kept sufficiently in hand. These requirements will, as a rule, be best met, if the reserve follows the main body, when deployed in line or while engaged in deploying, in échelon on either flank.

The observations already made with regard to the responsibility of the commander of the reserve in the case of a regiment are the more applicable in the case of large bodies of cavalry, since the increased strength of the reserve renders its co-operation in the general events all the more important and decisive.

EMPLOYMENT OF THE ARTILLERY ATTACHED TO

CAVALRY.

(a) In the Brigade.The brigadier determines the position of the battery in accordance with the actual situation and his own intentions; the position is based on the following principles: The artillery may certainly shatter the enemy's attacking bodies by a welltimed and well-maintained fire, and thus either materially pave the way for the attack or disturb the enemy in his deployment. The main rôle of cavalry, surprise, must not, however, be sacrificed to this object; the cavalry must on no account be delayed in its

movements at the expense of the battery. Without adhering too closely to the brigade, the battery must, therefore, both on the march and during the advance, be so placed that it may at the right moment be disposed at the points (often far to the front and flank) from which it may fire on the enemy as long as possible, without either endangering, or being itself interfered with by, the advance and deployment of the cavalry. It must strain every endeavour to gain these points as rapidly as possible, and to get into action at once ; it should therefore drive over the soundest ground and tracks, and avoid as much as possible deep and intersected country, which is very obstructive to its advance. Lastly, it should not as a rule be broken up, nor should it manoeuvre in front of the cavalry.

These considerations demand that the battery attached to a cavalry brigade should be equally independent as cautious and rapid in its movements, and be also often led without regard to momentary exposure. To attain this, the commander must not only be made fully cognisant of the proposed operations of the brigadier, but must also be directly at his elbow, when reconnoitring the ground for the movements of his cavalry, the enemy's situation, &c., so as to be able to select rising points, on the flanks of the proposed deployment of the brigade, for the position of his guns.

As a protection against the enemy's attack, a battery is given an escort, which should not be less than

half a squadron ; its duties are also to clear the front of the battery.

The principles enumerated above are also applicable to guns attached to regiments or divisions acting independently.

(6) In Bodies of Cavalry over the Strength of a Brigade.-Cavalry Divisions or corps may either temporarily combine the batteries attached to the brigades, or, when independent operations are to be carried out, have a larger force of artillery given them. Batteries, thus massed, will pave the way for a grand cavalry attack, afford it the most material support possible, and, provided the position of the batteries is sufficiently secure, offer a rallying point for the retreating cavalry in the event of an unsuccessful issue. They may also be called upon, by a well-timed and sudden fire, to draw off the enemy's attention from the cavalry, and attract his fire upon themselves; they should not, however, so much reply to the latter as bring their guns to bear on the attacking force. Great cavalry and artillery attacks generally work together. To attain the result aimed at, viz. the destruction of the enemy and the success of a frequently doubtful issue, the commander of the artillery must, however, as already pointed out, be made fully acquainted with the object of the cavalry attack, gaining his information either personally from the cavalry commander or from the orders received from higher authority. As a matter of course, the cavalry Division or corps must provide the requisite escort for the batteries

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