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never wrote for any Prize. Not a sentence of this Volume was penned till the time fixed for the delivery of the Mission Prize Essays had expired; and the printing of it was far advanced before the Adjudicators had made their award.

The idea of the “ Philosophy of Missions” first entered the Author's mind in the Summer of 1840, when preparing for the press the third edition of “ The Missionary's Farewell.” To that little publication he then appended an account of the Martyrdom of Williams, which concluded with the following words :—"The Writer would fain disburden his heart of some portion of the thoughts which oppress it; but he is restrained by his present limits, and must, therefore, reserve his views of the life, labours, death, and character of his honoured friend for another publication.” This Work was shortly after begun, and would have been finished much sooner, had not the Author's attention been diverted by the BibleMonopoly Question. It was thus delayed till the beginning of the present year, when its appearance simultaneously with the Prize Essays may have induced the supposition of a common origin. A comparison, however, between the contents of this Volume and the published conditions of the Prize Essays, will show the conjecture to be utterly groundless.

The Prize Essays and the “ Martyr of Erro

manga” differ essentially in their matter, form, tone, and general character. But, had the fact been otherwise, the Author would have deemed it no disgrace for his Book to fail in a contest where only such Works as those of the Rev. Dr. Harris and the Rev. R. W. Hamilton succeeded. The Author feels, at the same time, not a little gratified to find, that several of his leading views are cordially entertained and powerfully enforced in the Prize Volumes; and he hopes, that, as they and the present publication are in no respect rivals, they will run together in harmony, yielding to each other mutual support, and, in their several measures, tending to promote that object which is, above all others, dear to their Authors.

LONDON,

April 3, 1842.

PRE FACE.

The source of all evil in our world is ignorance of God, or enmity against him. While this enmity and that ignorance remain, and in proportion as they preponderate, sin and misery will continue to exist and to prevail. The only means, therefore, of curing the maladies of human nature, and of rectifying the disorders of society, is, to substitute knowledge for ignorance, and love for enmity. This will effect a recovery, and restore tranquillity, complete, universal, and permanent. The result of this substitution will be true and perfect civilization, comprehending everything necessary to elevate, adorn, and bless mankind—the resurrection of buried intellect — the enthronement of enlightened reason—the subjugation of unhallowed passion — the infusion of real humanity—the extinction of war with its calamities — the establishment of peace with its blessings—the annihilation of all that is hurtful to man and the introduction of all that is contributory to his happiness,-liberty,-literature,-arts, -science,-com

merce,-just legislation,—and international harmony. Hence arise the surpassing glory of the Missionary Enterprise, and the matchless excellence of the Missionary character, -an enterprise which comprehends all lands, all times, and all men, with all their interests for both worlds; and a character which forms the highest and noblest manifestation of philanthropy, patriotism, piety, and moral greatness.

The work of missions is incomparably the best medium through which to contemplate the cross of Christ and the mercy of God. The true history of that work supplies a body of the most convincing evidence in support of Christianity, that can be produced. Williams's “ Missionary Enterprises," alone, is of more real value than all the writings of a Clarke, a Butler, a Paley, a Chalmers, a Leland, and a Lardner, united. There Christianity appears arrayed in her missionary costume. She presents her majestic form, and shows her beauteous face, on the battlements of a citadel reared by her own hands, with materials furnished by her own conquests. The fruit of missions is her best defence; she asks, she needs, no other. Obedience to the Son of God wants no permission; deeds of the highest benevolence to a suffering world call for no apology. He who opposes the work of missions, forfeits all claim to the character of a friend, either of God or of man. The adversary of missions is a foe to the Saviour of the world; for by

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