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TEXT-BOOK ON RHETORIC,

SUPPLEMENTING THE

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCIENCE WITH EXHAUSTIVE

PRACTICE IN COMPOSITION.

A COURSE OF PRACTICAL LESSONS ADAPTED FOR

USE IN HIGH SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES AND

IN THE LOWER CLASSES OF COLLEGES.

BY

BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D.,
Professor of the English Language and Literature in the Brooklyn Polytechnic
Institute, Author of a Text-Book on English Literature, and one
of the Authors of Reed & Kellogg's Graded Lessons in
Englishand Higher Lessons in English,

Etc., Etc.

New and Improved Edition.

NEW YORK:
MAYNARD, MERRILL, & Co.,
43, 45 AND 47 East TENTH STREET.

1896.

EducT

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

GIFT OF
MR. & MRS. HENRY H. BOND

AUGUST 31, 1933

778.96.479

A COMPLETE COURSE IN ENGLISH,

BY

ALONZO REED, A.M., AND BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D.

REED'S WORD LESSONS, A COMPLETE SPELLER. Designed to teach the

correct spelling, pronunciation, and use of such words only as are most common in current literature, and as are most likely to be misspelled, mispronounced, or misused, and to awaken new interest in the study of synonyms and of word. analysis. 188 pages,

12mo. REED'S INTRODUCTORY LANGUAGE WORK. A simple, varied, and pleasing,

but methodical series of exercises in English to precede the study of technical

grammar. 253 pages, 16mo, linen. REED & KELLOGG'S GRADED LESSONS IN ENGLISH. An elementary Eng.

lish grammar, consisting of one hundred practical lessons, carefully graded and

adapted to the class-room. 200 pages, 16mo, linen. REED & KELLOGG'S HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH. A work on English

grammar and composition, in which the science of the language is made tribu. tary to the art of expression. A course of practical lessons carefully graded, and

adapted to every-day use in the school-room. 316 pages, 16mo, cloth. REED & KELLOGG'S ONE-BOOK COURSE IN ENGLISH. A carefully graded

and complete series of lessons in English grammar and composition based on the natural development of the sentence. For schools that have not time to com

plete more than one book on grammar. 328 pages, 16mo, cloth. KELLOGG & REED'S WORD-BUILDING. Fifty lessons, combining Latin,

Greek, and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes, and suffixes, into about fifty-five hundred common derivative words in English; with a brief history of the English

language. 122 pages, 16mo, cloth. KELLOGG & REED'S THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. A brief history of the gram

matical changes of the language and its vocabulary, with exercises on synonyms, prefixes, suffixes, word-analysis, and word-building. A text-book for high schools

and colleges. 226 pages, 16mo, cloth. KELLOGG'S TEXT-BOOK ON RHETORIC. Revised and enlarged edition. Sup.

plementing the development of the science with exbaustive practice in composi. tion. A course of practical lessons adapted for use in bigh schools, academies,

and lower classes of colleges. 345 pages, 12mo, cloth. KELLOGG'S TEXT-BOOK ON ENGLISH LITERATURE, with copious extracts

from the leading authors, English and American, and full instructions as to the method in which these are to be studied. 485 pages, 12mo, cloth.

Copyright, 1880, 1891, 1892, by BRAINERD KELLOGG.

PREFACE.

Rhetoric, an Art. Learning what to do and how to do it and retailing the acquired knowledge in recitations and in oral or written examinations are things easy of accomplishment; doing what one has learned how to do, and doing this habitually, are not. What teacher of rhetoric has not sympathized with the delightful Portia, in the “Merchant of Venice,” when she says, with a sigh, “If to do were as easy as to know what were good to do, chapels had been churches, and poor men's cottages princes' palaces” ?

Because of this difficulty of doing and our neglect of it, how much of our instruction fails of that for which it is chiefly intended !

No professor of music — text-book as well as instructor - sits down with his scholar, expounds the principles on which the art of music rests, explains how this, that, and the other piece should be rendered, instances model performers, warns the pupil against the errors into which he is liable to fall, and then goes away imagining that under such training the youth is likely to become a musician. But in teaching the art of arts, the art of thinking and expressing thought, are we not prone to stop short with the presentation of the principles of the science; or add, it may be, for correction, some passages violating these principles, or in

stance writers who observe them ? Are we not apt to think that with this our work as author fitly ends; or, if not, that the teacher will take up our unfinished task, and, without models, hints, suggestions, outlines, directions — work of any

kind laid out for him will go on to teach the pupils to translate into product and make available in speech the theory unfolded and the knowledge imparted ?

The Text-book Teachers Demand. The cry coming up from teachers on all sides is, that they need something more in the text-book, something that, after the principles of the science have been fully and clearly unfolded, shall go on immediately to mark out work for the pupil to do in illustration of what he has learned, and shall exact the doing of it, not in the recitation-room, but in preparation for it and as the burden of his lesson. We believe, with such teachers, that the aim of the study should be to put the pupil in possession of an art; and that this cannot be done by forcing the science into him through eye and ear, but must largely be accomplished by drawing it out of him, in products, through tongue and pen. In this belief the author has prepared this work. In it all explanations of principles are, one at a time and immediately, supplemented by exhaustive practice in composition.

The plan pursued in the book is simple. The work stands under three heads - Invention, Qualities of Style, and Productions.

Rhetoric, the Art of Invention. Great stress is laid upon invention, - the finding of the thought, — the most important element in discourse of any kind. While, strictly

speaking, rhetoric cannot — nothing can — teach the pupil to think, rhetoric can bring the pupil into such relations with his subject that he shall find much thought in it, and be led to put this into the most telling place in his oral and written efforts. Having learned what thinking is, and what a sentence is as the embodiment of a thought and the instrument of its expression, the pupil is gradually led up through the construction of sentences of all conceivable kinds - from the simplest to the most intricate, and these transformed by substitution and by contraction and expansion, — through the synthesis of such sentences into paragraphs, and through the analysis of subjects and the preparation of frameworks, to the finding of the thought for his themes.

Rhetoric, the Art of Expression. Under qualities of style, the pupil is made familiar with perspicuity, imagery, energy, wit, pathos, and elegance, learns in detail what he must do to secure these qualities, and has placed before him pages of extracts from the best writers for the critical study of style.

Under productions, all discourse is divided into oral and written, and written into prose and poetry. These are subdivided, and the requisites and functions of the grand divisions and of their subdivisons are explained. Special attention is given to those productions exacted of the pupil,

– debates, orations, letters, essays. The rhythm and the meter of poetry and the substitution of feet are made level to the pupil's comprehension, and extracts are given for the critical study of poetry.

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