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for veneering ; to make handles for carpenters' and joiners'
ARALIA SPINOSA-THE SPINY ARALIA, or ANGELICA
Derived, according to some, from the Greek, ara, annoyance, or mischief ; the spines being very troublesome, in its native country, North America, to travellers. N. 0. Arali.
L. S. Pentandria Pentagynia.
ARAUCARIA IMBRICATA-THE IMBRICATE-LEAVED
ARAUCARIA, or Chili PINE.
Derived from Araucanos, the name of the people in whose country, Chili, it grows. It is a very remarkable tree, the female of which, according to Pavon, is about 150 feet high, while the male is seldom more than 40 or 50 feet high. The Araucarias are magnificent evergreens, natives of South America, Polynesia, and Australia. A. imbricata is as hardy in the climate of Britain as the Cedar of Lebanon. N. 0. Coniferæ. L. S. Diæcia Monadelphia.
Derived from the Greek aristë, best, and lochia, parturition. Most of the Aristolochias are twining in their growth. The hardy species are natives of North America, and the half hardy, of Africa and the Levant. The most remarkable are those which, in many of the tropical parts of America, excite the wonder of travellers by the gigantic size or grotesque appearance of the flowers. The border of the calyx of A. cymbifera, resembles one of the lappets of a Norman woman's cap, and measures seven or eight inches in length ; and A. cordiflora and A. gigantea, produce flowers which are from fifteen to sixteen inches across, and are large enough to form bonnets for the Indian children. N. 0. Asarinæ. L. S. Gynandria Hexandria. A. sipho
ARISTOTELIA MAQUI-THE MAQUI, or SHINING
Named in memory of Aristotle, the philosopher and naturalist. It is a native of Chili, where it forms an evergreen shrub, with diffuse branches, growing to the height of six feet. N. 0. Homalineæ. L. S. Dodecandria Tetragynia.
So called from the apricot coming originally from Armenia ; or apricot, from the Latin præcox from this fruit ripening sooner than most others. There are several wild varieties, bearing flowers of different shades of pink, chiefly cultivated as ornamental. The great beauty of both the wild and cultivated sorts is, that they come into bloom, in Britain, before almost any other tree; the Siberian apricot flowering a fortnight or more before the common sloe or almond. It is a native of Armenia, Caucasus, the Himalayas, China, and Japan, where it forms a large spreading tree. N. O. Rosacea. L. S. Icosandria Monogynia. A. vulgaris
ARTEMISIA--THE TREE WORMWOOD.
Derivation uncertain ; but supposed by some to have been called after Artemisia, the wife of Mausolus, king of Caria; or from Artemis, one of the names of Diana. It is a native of Italy, Spain, south of France, Silesia, and Carniola; and of Siberia, Syria, Galatia, Cappadocia, China, and Cochin China. In British gardens, it sometimes attains the height of five feet, in deep, dry soil. Its flowers, which are yellowish, and of little show, appear from August to October. The leaves, when held against a strong light, will be found full of transpa. rent dots, in which the odorous matter of the plant is probably contained. N. 0. Composite. L. S. Syngenesia Superflua. A. coerulescens Wulfenii
ASTRAGALUS TRAGACANTHA-THE GOAT'S THORN,
MILK VETCH, or GREAT GOAT'S THORN. Derived from the Greek astragalos, vertebra--the seed in the legumes of some species being squeezed into a squarish form, so as to look like the joints of the back-bone; or,
perhaps, from aster, a star, and gala, milk. The tragacantha, is a low, prickly, glaucous shrub, seldom exceeding one foot in height. It is a native of Marseilles and Narbonne, as well as of Corsica and Mauritania. N. 0. Leguminosa. L. S. Diadelphia Decandria.
ATRAGENE—THE ATRAGENE. Atragene is a name given to a species of clematis, but differs from it in the nectary. It is a valuable and handsome genus of climbing plants—well adapted for training, like clematis, over bowers aud trellis-work. It is a native of Austria, Piedmont, Hungary, Siberia, and of North America. N. 0. Ranunculacea. L.S. Polyandria Polygynia. A. Austrica
ATRIPLEX HALIMUS—THE HALIMUS ORACHE, or
From the Latin ater, black, i. e. the seeds—called by the Greeks atraphaxis, i. e. not nourishing. This species is a native of Spain, Portugal, Virginia, and Siberia. It is an evergreen shrub, which grows five or six feet high, and forms a large broad head. The young branches are covered with a smooth white bark, which becomes grey, and peels off lengthwise, as the tree grows old. N. O. Chenopodiacea. L. S. Polygamia Monoecia.
AUCUBA JAPONICA-THE JAPAN, or BLOTCH-LEAVED
This well-known, laurel-like evergreen, when introduced in 1783, by the late Conrad Loddiges, Esq., was treated like a stove plant. It is now a hardy shrub, and its beautifully mottled leaves make it generally admired. N. 0. Loranthea. L. S. Diæcia Tetrandria.
BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA -- THE
HALIMUM-LEAVED BACCHARIS, PLOUGHMAN'S SPIKENARD, or THE GROUNDSEL TREE.
So called by the Greeks, who dedicated it to Bacchus, This is a native of North America, on the sea-coast, from Maryland to Florida. Its flowers are white, with a tint of purple, and resemble those of the groundsel, but are much larger. It grows to the height of eight or ten feet. Its general appearance accords with that of the genus Atriplex. N.O. Composite. L. S. Syngenesia Superflua.
BELIS LANCEOLATA-THE BROAD, or SPEAR-LEAVED
CHINESE FIR. This very distinct genus was first separated from pinus, by Mr. Salisbury, under the name of belis, from belos, a javelin, or spear—as the leaves somewhat resemble that weapon. It is now called Cunninghamia Sinensis. For many years it was kept in the greenhouse ; but, in 1816, a plant of it was placed in a sheltered part of the pleasure ground at Claremont; and though injured more or less by severe winters, it was, in 1837, eighteen feet high, the circumference of the trunk being one foot nine inches. It is readily propogated by cuttings. N. O. Coniferæ. L. S. Monæcia Monadelphia.
So called, after George Bentham ; and from fragum a strawberry, and ferre to bear. A native of Nepaul, &c.; a very handsome plant, sufficiently hardy to bear our severest winters, if guarded by a mat. N.O. Cornaceæ. L. S. Te. trandria Monogynia.
BERBERIS—THE BERBERRY. The derivation is variously stated. The species are all shrubs ; but some, in a wild state, reach from three to eighteen feet ; and, in gardens, some attain the height of thirty feet. All throw ūp numerous side suckers, and if these were removed from the stronger growing species, they might be formed into very handsome small trees. In all the species the flowers are yellow. The fruit is generally red; but in some species it is white, or yellow; it is always acid, and more or less astringent. The species are generally thorny, and most of them flower freely in spring, and bear abundant fruit in Autumn. N. O. Berberideæ. L. S. Hexandria Monogynia. B. Vulgaris
B. Canadensis lutea
From Betu, its Celtic name; or from the Latin batuere, to beat. The birches are natives of Europe, of North America, and some of them of Asia. The common birch is one of the hardiest of known trees ; and there are only one or two other species of ligneous plants, which approach so near to the North Pole. The species all ripen their seeds in the climate of London, and are all of the easiest culture, in any ordinary soil. The leaves, having little succulency, and being astringent and aromatic, are very rarely subject to the attacks of insects. The wood of all the species is much less durable than the bark. N. O. Amentaceæ. L. S. Monæcia Polyandria. B. alba
B. nigra pendula
BIGNONIA CAPREOLATA-TENDRILLED BIGNONIA, or
Named after the Abbé Bignon, librarian to Louis XIV. This is a climbing shrub ; a native of the southern parts of North America. It flowers in June and July, and is an excellent plant for covering dead walls ; but requires a sheltered situation, in order to flower freely. N. O. Bignoniacea. L. S. Didynamia Angiosperma. See Catalpa and Tecoma.