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in it a single year complete, and was liberated from it in the morning of the third year.' · The liberation of Noah from the Ark, or bis emerging from the waves of the purifying deluge, was attended by the flight of the dove and its descent upon the now baptized patriarch. The emerging of our Saviour from the baptismal waters of Jordan was similarly attended by the descent of the Holy Ghost in the form of a dove, that blessed Spirit benceforth resting upon the Church as the dove rested upon the Ark. Of God's covenant with Noah the rainbow was the appointed token. Christ, with express reference to that token, is described in the Apocalypse as sitting upon a throne encompassed by a rainbow.

To these particulars it may be added, that Noah was a king, a priest, and a prophet; that he was pursued by a tremendous enemy the ocean, which, as supposing the deluge to originate from the evil principle, the Gentiles after the manner of the early Patriarchal Church were wont to symbolize by a serpent; that he finally prevailed over that enemy, though it first occasioned his mystic death and burial; that, at the period of his birth from the womb of his virgin-mother the Ark,


"Noah entered the Ark on the seventeenth day of the second month, and quitted it a year afterwards on the twenty seventh day of the same month ; so that he was inclosed a whole year and a portion of two other years, namely 5 days at the commencement and five days at the end of the entire year. Gen. vii. 11–13. viii. 14–16.

Boch. Hieroz. par. ii. lib. i. c. 6.


he dwelt during his allegorical childhood amidst herds of cattle; that he was an emiment preacher of righteousness to an irreclaimable world; and that, although of a mild and benevolent disposition, he was constrained to assume the stern aspect of a dispenser of God's vengeance and to pour destruction upon

all those who were not sheltered by the protecting Ark. In each of these points he resembles the Messiah, partly at his first and partly at his second advent. Hence, as he presided over the destruction of the old world by a deluge of water, in a similar manner to Christ's presiding over the destruction of the present world by a deluge of fire at the yet future day of judgment; and as in each case the elect people of God alone are saved, while the wicked are swept away by a raging flood : so our Lord specially informs us, that in this eminent particular also Noah was a type of himself.'

Nor is that the only matter, which may be fairly deduced from Christ's prophetic declaration. He says, that the state of the postdiluvian world at the time of his second advent shall closely resemble that of the antediluvian world immediately before the flood ; and in another place he intimates, that mankind at that period shall be distinguished not only by unbridled licentiousness and violence but likewise by a daring profession of infidelity.. If then the coming of the Son of man is faithfully to reflect the days of Noah, those days also must have been marked by infidelity as well as by profligacy

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and bloodshed. Such, accordingly, seems to have been the state of things at the epoch: of the deluge. Not only was the corporeal wickedness of man great in the earth, but likewise every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil-continually.' The unbelief of Cain 'had gradually infected the whole world : and the grand doctrine of the atonement, as shadowed out by animal sacrifice, had been universally discarded as an irrational figment unworthy of the dignity of human nature.*

IV. Since Christ is the federal head of his people, and since Jacob is the natural head of the ancient people of God; each is viewed as the representative of his children, spiritual and natural. Hence, as the whole community of the faithful, who are Christ's members, are on that account figuratively identified with Christ himself: so the whole community of God's ancient people, who were the political members of their national patriarch Jacob, are on that account exhibited to us as a type of Christ.

1. This circumstance will throw light upon some texts, wbich are otherwise of no very easy explication.

When the infant Jesus was brought back from Egypt into Palestine; this, according to St. Matthew, was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out


* Gen. vi. 5.
? See my Origin of Pagan Ilol. book ii. c. 8. § 11. 4.
3 Rev. xii. 4, 5.

of Egypt have I called my son.' Now, if we look to the place whence the evangelist cites that passage, we shall find, that, in the letter, the son called out of Egypt is the national Israel : for the text itself runs, When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt. Yet, notwithstanding this circumstance, St. Matthew asserts, that the text is not only declarative but likewise prophetic, looking forward to a similar event in the life of Christ. But it is obvious, that such cannot possibly be the case, 'unless God's ancient people be a type of our Saviour: while, if we admit them collectively to be a shadow of the Messiah, the ground of St. Matthew's declaration will at once be perfectly intelligible. In the same manner we must understand a very extraordinary passage

in the Psalms. This is the generation of them that seek him, that seek thy face, O Jacob.3 The person here addressed is evidently the Lord of hosts, in his character of the predicted Messiah or of Jehovah the Messenger: yet we find him addressed by the name of Jacob, though celebrated as Jehovah the king of glory. How are we to acçount for such language ? Clearly, I think, on the same ground, that St. Matthew pronounces a passage, which is literally spoken of Israel, to relate prophetically to Christ: Jacob, viewed collectively, was a type of the Messiah; whence the Messiah is addressed by the mystical name of Jacob.* 1 Matt. ii. 15.

Hos. xi. 1. 3 Psalm xxiv. 6. 4 The lxx. insert God before Jacob : but no such word occurs in the Hebrew.




2. Agreeably to this deduction, we may observe a very remarkable parallelism of character between Christ and the national Israel.

The life of Jacob was sought during his political infancy by a tyrannical prince: the life of Christ was sought during his literal infancy by a persecuting king. The motive, which produced the conduct of Pharaoh, was a jealousy lest Israel should become mightier than himself: the motive, which produced the conduct of Herod, was a jealousy lest Christ should be acknowledged as the king of the Jews. · Israel came up out of Egypt into Palestine, when the sovereign who sought his life was dead : Christ came up out of Egypt into Palestine, when those were dead who sought the young

child's life. Israel, during the whole time of his national existence, was appointed to hold forth the light of divine truth before a benighted world, and was in consequence hated and persecuted by mankind at large: Christ was a light to lighten both the Jews and the Gentiles; but his labours of love exposed himself and his disciples to hatred and obloquy and persecution. Israel experienced a political death at the close of one great day, lies dead during the whole of another great day, and is destined to be raised up from the dead on the morning of a third great day: Christ was put to death in the course of one literal day, lay dead during the whole of another day, and on the morning of the third day wus raised from the dead. This remarkable fortune of Israel is set forth by the prophet Hosea. Come, and let us return unto Jehovah. For he hath torn,

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